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cumulative distribution function

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to the Weibull distribution. The general expression for the Weibull cumulative distribution function (C.D.F.)is: F ( x ) = 1 − e − ( x θ ) b Where: x is the variable used to express life (miles, hours, cycles, etc.); F ( x ) is the cumulative per cent of the population...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a component during the intended service life is sought. To help answer these questions, define the probability density function (PDF), f X ( x ), and the cumulative distribution function (CDF), F X ( x ) (see Fig. 2 ). Areas under the PDF define the probabilities as shown. The CDF defines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0090030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... simulation, and probabilistic analysis to assess the probability of rotor fracture. It computes the probability of fracture as a function of flight cycles, considering random defect occurrence and location, random inspection schedules, and several other random variables using either Monte Carlo sampling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A large diameter steel pipe reinforced by stiffening rings with saddle supports was subjected to thermal cycling as the system was started up, operated, and shut down. The pipe functioned as an emission control exhaust duct from a furnace and was designed originally using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situation, including the loads and the distribution of stresses within the configuration. Is there an additional load/stress that was not included in the analysis, which changes the stress distribution? Or is the stress analysis incorrect? In many cases, however, stress analysis alone is not sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Kugellagern (The Life Span of Ball Bearings) , Z. Ver. Deutsch. Ing. , Vol 68 , p 339 – 341 8. Miner M.A. , Cumulative Damage in Fatigue , J. Appl. Mech. , Vol 12 , p 159 – 164 9. Peterson R.E. , Stress Concentration Factors , John Wiley & Sons , 1974 , p 10 , 11...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and residual welding stresses would also be present. This effect could be additive as the flat studs on adjacent tubes near the middle of the boiler contact each other and cumulatively distribute the strains to the corners. The corners of the buckstay beams were of a rigid welded type design and have little...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Damage may be defined as a “progressive and cumulative change acting to degrade the structural performance of the load-bearing component or components that make up the plant” ( Ref 1 ). Life may be defined as the “period during which a component can perform its intended function safely, reliably...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., films, nonmetals, composites, assemblies Acoustic emission (AE) Multiple distributed sensors detect and triangulate AE stress-wave source in response to mechanical or thermal stress. Corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, weld cracking, creep and fatigue cracking Sensitive to noise and vibration...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... growth of crack, and the sudden fracture of the remaining cross section. The article discusses the effects of loading and stress distribution on fatigue cracks, and reviews the fatigue behavior of materials when subjected to different loading conditions such as bending and loading. The article examines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... profiles) and the cumulative effect of torque and force loading (the byproduct of continuous twisting and axial impact). Cracks readily initiate under these conditions then propagate quickly through what was found to be networks of tempered martensite, thus resulting in premature failure. drill bit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... distribution within the bearing system Not all of this information may be needed for every analysis, but it is desirable because the necessary data cannot be established until considerable analytical work has been done. Later acquisition of pertinent data is frequently difficult or impossible. Generally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... inspection stress structural components structural design LIFE ASSESSMENT of structural components is used to avoid catastrophic failures and to maintain safe and reliable functioning of equipment. The articles in the “Structural Life Assessment Methods” Section in this Volume are written to provide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... −62.6 −62.9 Standard deviation 0.7 1.1 Fig. 30 Finite-element model showing maximum stress concentration in cloverleaf radius. The highest stress concentration is in the small black area surrounded by white. Fig. 31 Typical residual-stress profile as a function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... radius. The highest stress concentration is in the small black area surrounded by white. Fig. 31 Typical residual-stress profile as a function of distance from the maximum stress concentration in the radius of a tiedown socket Fig. 34 Residual stress versus depth profiles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the combined action of hardening and recovery processes during primary creep can lead to the formation of a stable distribution of subgrains or loose, three-dimensional dislocation networks in some materials, or an approximately uniform dislocation distribution without subgrains in other materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... provides the more accurate representation of ductility in metals at elevated temperatures. The large differences between total and true elongation, such as those shown in Fig. 7 , are a function of crack volume and distribution in tertiary creep. The differences in crack initiation and growth can make...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 64 HRC at both the flute edge and in the bulk of the drill. Plaintiff's expert concluded that the failed drill was defective while the other drill was satisfactory. He claimed that failure was a cumulative result of the following defective conditions: the steel contained nonmetallic inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to a scratch-free finish for metallographic observation. Polished and unetched specimens were examined by optical microscopy at magnifications of 500× and 100× to observe the graphite morphology and distribution, respectively. The unetched roll specimens were also observed for non-metallic inclusions (NMI...