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crystalline solids

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the root cause of an overload failure. It also presents examples of thermally and environmentally induced embrittlement effects that can alter the overload fracture behavior of metals. atomic structure brittle cracking crack propagation crystalline structure ductile cracking ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of polymeric materials to form crystalline solids depends in part on the complexity of the pendant side groups of atoms attached to the covalently bonded carbon atom backbone. Crystallinity is also decreased if the polymer is branched. Seldom is crystallinity complete in a polymeric material. Crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It was then realized that cleavage fracture in crystalline materials could not be based simply on a normal stress criterion (e.g., see Honeycombe ( Ref 2 ). Many new tools and techniques for studying fracture surfaces have become available and made possible a more complete understanding of fracture processes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., contamination, degradation, chemical contact Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Heat of fusion, melting point, glass transition temperature, heat capacity Material identification, level of crystallinity, aging/degradation, thermal history Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Weight loss over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Embry J.D. , Damage Accumulation in Fracture Processes , Modeling the Deformation of Crystalline Solids , Lowe T.C. , Rollett A.D. , Follansbee P.S. , and Daehn G.S. , Ed., TMS , 1991 17. Kausch H.H. , Polymer Fracture , Springer Verlag , 1978 18...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the magnetite formed is of the hard, crystalline variety, which rapidly blunts normal metal cutting tools. In cases of on-load corrosion the magnetite is also of the massive, crystalline form and of a hardness capable of scratching glass. It has been reported that the surface appearance of the oxide, is related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the cooling system of a condenser. Visual examination of the flap showed crystalline fracture, indicating a brittle failure. Metallographic examination, chemical analyses, and tensile and impact testing indicated that the failure was caused by the notch sensitivity of the forging material, which resulted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Surface Chemical Analysis Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Characterization Thermal Analysis as a Tool in Chemical Analysis X-Ray Diffraction for Compositional Analysis of Crystalline Materials Advancements in silicon drift detector technology allow for real-time or near...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for direct, nondestructive measurement of residual (internal) stresses in metals. Stresses are determined by measuring the submicroscopic distortion of crystalline lattice structures by tensile or compressive residual stresses. However, it should be pointed out that measurement of residual stresses near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dissolves in the molten glass and reprecipitates as one or more compositionally modified crystalline phases. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-Ray Powder Diffraction X-ray powder diffraction is an important tool in the evaluation of the composition of oxides and other contaminating crystalline material. The material must be removed and crushed to a powder, if it is not already in this condition. It is then placed in a glass capillary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rubberStyrenated polyester 3 Rigid chains PIs (ladder molecules) A Crystalline domains in a viscous network PETTerylene (Dacron)Cellulose acetate B Moderate cross linking, with some crystallinity Chloroprene rubberPolyisoprene C Rigid chains, partly cross linked Heat-resistant materials D...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... If the hydrogen content of the molten steel exceeds the solubility limit of hydrogen in solid iron, the hydrogen will be rejected during solidification, and this leads to pinhole formation and porosity in steel. Just a few parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracks (flakes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Evaluation. Vol 8 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2000 , p 15 3. Deformation and Viscoelasticity , Engineered Materials Handbook Desk Edition , ASM International , 1995 , p 393 – 409 4. Ward I.M. , Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers , John Wiley & Sons , 1982...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., copolymer, terpolymer, blends, alloys Additives: intentional, unintentional Molecular weight Molecular weight distribution Cross linking gives infinite molecular weight. Intermolecular order Crystallinity Orientation: intentional, unintentional Degree of fusion Thermal transitions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the constituents: the smaller the grains, the faster they dissolve. In refractories, however, the smallest grains, by design, bond with the coarser grains (the aggregate), and since this bonding occurs by liquid-solid sintering, the matrix materials (the bonding phases) have the lowest melting temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Solids , Vol 19 , 1975 , p 321 – 333 10.1016/0022-3093(75)90097-6 7. Alfaro E.S. , Guiheen J.V. , and Varner J.R. , Insights Provided by Fractography in Strength Testing of Machined Si 3 N 4 and Indented Al 2 O 3 , Fractography of Glasses and Ceramics II , Vol 17...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... complex, because most plastics respond as true solids over a limited time frame, but over time and under load, they can behave as extremely viscous liquids ( Ref 4 ). The response of a polymeric material to temperature under load is dependent on its glass transition temperature ( T g ), which is defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual (fracture surface): Mag: 1 to 50× Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads Dull, fibrous fracture Shear lips Little or no distortion Flat fracture Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy Rays or chevrons...