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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the applied aspects of creep and stress-rupture failures. It discusses the microstructural changes and bulk mechanical behavior of classical and nonclassical creep behavior. The article provides a description of microstructural changes and damage from creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of 1 Cr, 0.5 Mo steel with a wall thickness of 14 mm. The design temperature of this tube was 490 deg C, but there is evidence that it was operating at a temperature much above 500 deg C. Metallographic analysis disclosed an advanced stage of creep damage accumulation in the form of local cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Udimet 520 Creep fracture/stress rupture Thermal fatigue fracture High-temperature corrosion and oxidation This case history illustrates how to evaluate creep, oxidation, and TMF in a first-stage gas turbine blade. Often, it is necessary to estimate the temperature and the applied stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures of 10Cr-Mo9-10 and X 20Cr-Mo-V12-1 superheated pipes during service in steam power generation plants are described. Through micrographic and fractographic analysis, creep and overheating were identified as the cause of failure. The Larson-Miller parameter is computed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... metallographically on transverse sections and on longitudinal sections through the butt welds joining the separate cast segments of the tube. Creep damage was mainly concentrated within the inner one third of the wall thickness. The use of damage assessment parameters in evaluating the reformer tube remaining life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract During a planned shut-down in 1990 it appeared that the bottom manifold parts made of wrought Incoloy 800H had undergone diametrical expansion of up to 2% due to creep. Further, cracking at the outer diam was found. It was decided to replace these parts. Microscopical investigations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Two steam-methane reformer furnaces were subjected to short-time heat excursions because of a power outage, which resulted in creep bulging in the Incoloy 800 outlet pigtails, requiring complete replacement. Each furnace had three cells, consisting of 112 vertical tubes per cell, each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by metallurgical examination that it had failed as a result of intergranular fissuring and oxidation (creep rupture). The ruptured area revealed that the header had failed by conventional long-time creep rupture as a result of exposure to operating temperatures probably between 900 and 955 deg C. Three samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... or no loss in wall thickness due to corrosion or scaling, and the tube wall was thinned to a knife edge at the rupture. Metallographic examination showed the condition of the material was satisfactory. The failure was mechanical in nature, typical of short time creep rupture. The localized oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Metallographic examination revealed creep voids near the rupture in addition to graphite nodules. Exposure of the SA209 Grade T1A steel tubing to a calculated mean operating temperature of 530 deg C (983 deg F) for the 13 years resulted in graphitization and subsequent creep failure in Tube 3. The deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied aspects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0048303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract A tube in a radiant superheater, the boiler of which is coal fired, failed by creep after 17 years of service. The failed tube was specified to be made of ASME SA-213, grade T-22. Measurable swelling of the tube diameter by about 2.4 mm and tube wastage caused by corrosion or erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the general aspects of creep, stress relaxation, and yielding for homogeneous polymers. It then presents creep failure mechanisms in polymers. The article discusses extrapolative methods for the prediction of long-term creep failure in polymer materials...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Schematic tension-creep curve showing the three stages of creep More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of ductile polymers More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of nonductile, or brittle, polymers More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 10 (a) Creep damage in a tube. (b) Creep void in carbon steel showing oxide and decarburization. Nital etch. (c) Beginning creep in Manaurite superalloy. Marble’s etch. (d) Advanced creep in same Manaurite superalloy shown in (c). Marble’s etch. (e) Scanning electron microscope image More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Schematic illustrations of creep curves. (a) Strain versus time. (b) Creep strain rate versus time More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during More