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crack nucleation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... rod that was engaged in a blind hole in the cylinder block. The failures were caused by loose tolerances on the threads that resulted in a non-uniform distribution of load. The load was concentrated on the last threads to engage, thus causing fatigue crack nucleation at the thread root and propagation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and propagate along the through-thickness direction. The presence of extensive decarburization and formation of a soft ferrite band within the fusion zone may have contributed to the nucleation of the cracks. Crack propagation was aided by the presence of exogenous inclusions entrapped within the fusion zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... cracking is significant because the user advised that the liners were not backed in the installation. Cracking was present in the microstructures of both liners. These cracks tend to fracture the brittle carbide phase first; once nucleated, the sharp cracks can propagate and grow to critical dimensions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was the primary cause of failure. Rubbing of the faying surfaces worked the interference area on the post until small tears developed. These small tears became stress-concentration points that nucleated fatigue cracks. Recommendations included rounding the edge of the box in the area of contact with the post...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... micrograph revealed this area also displayed an intergranular texture. One of a group of small grinding cracks on the ID of the cylinder nucleated the failure. Other evidence indicated the cracks developed when the cylinder was ground during overhaul. Aircraft components Cylinders Grinding cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A carbon-molybdenum (ASTM A209 Grade T1) steel superheater tube section in an 8.6 MPa (1250 psig) boiler cracked because of long-term overheating damage that resulted from prolonged exposure to metal temperatures between 482 deg C (900 deg F) and 551 deg C (1025 deg F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0046238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in operation. Visual examination revealed beach marks typical of fatigue cracks that had nucleated at the base of the longitudinal oil hole. Micrographs of sections revealed a remelt zone and an area of untempered martensite within the region of the cracks. However, review of inspection procedures disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Diffusion of hydrogen to an inclusion site results in either decohesion of the inclusion/matrix interface or nucleation of a crack at the inclusion site. Because cracking by hydrogen embrittlement is diffusion controlled, it takes time (in days or months) for the cracking to appear. The maximum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...” seen in Fig. 3 . This type of nucleation is typical for H 2 -induced cracking/blistering in electroplated carbon and low alloy steels. Observation of the fracture surface at high magnification near the ID clearly demonstrates the transition in the fracture mode ( Fig. 4 ). The region of brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the center of the piston-pin-bushing bore. The fracture was nucleated at an electroetched numeral 5 on one of the flange surfaces. A notch, caused by arc erosion during electroetching, was revealed by metallographic examination of a polished-and-etched section through the fracture origin. A remelted zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... overstress as the smooth-textured fatigue zone was relatively large compared with the crystalline textured coarse final-fracture zone. The fatigue crack was nucleated by the nonmetallic inclusion that intersected the surface and initiated in the 0.25 mm radius fillet at a change in section due to stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to a better understanding of both crack nucleation in regions of localized strain and the subsequent crack growth mechanisms outside the plastic zone in the qualification of component designs or to conduct failure analyses. Infinite-Life Criterion (<italic>S</italic>-<italic>N</italic> Curves) The safe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... fatigue striations and microscopic crack growth bands, Figure 4 . A specific fatigue crack nucleation site could not be readily identified, but the orientation of the crack growth bands and striations in area A, Figure 3 , suggested that fatigue crack initiation occurred at the trailing edge tip area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... was metallographically examined. The area of the stem in which the fatigue cracks nucleated exhibited corrosion pits. Such pits act as notches and are likely sites for nucleation of fatigue cracks. The corrosion pits were the result of intergranular attack by the corrosive environment and the depletion of chromium from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... impeller. The vanes were fillet welded to both the disk and the cover. Applications Specimen Selection The cracks were adjacent to the fillet welds. They were near the outer diameter of the cover but, with one or two exceptions, did not extend to the outer diameter edge. They appeared to nucleate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... revealed several pits in the regions where cracklike defects were observed. Fine cracks originated at pit bottoms and extended across the thickness of the convolutes, suggesting that pits acted as sites for crack nucleation. The high level of hardness of the parent material indicated that the bellows had...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reducing metal-to-metal contact Adhesion: a more severe wear regime characterized by material smearing and transfer Abrasion: equally severe, one-body or two-body modes lead to the formation of ploughing grooves Surface fatigue: more severe wear again, leading to subsurface crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Nondestructive Evaluation Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical Properties Figure 4 clearly shows that the HK-40 reformed tubing failed by a cracking process initiating at the weld root. The mechanism of crack nucleation was related to the coalescence...