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coupled reactions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the gas was the cause of damage. Hydrogen liberated by reaction with the iron caused the formation of iron sulfide after penetration of the steel, which had an explosive effect during molecular separation under high pressure. This in turn caused the crack formation in conjunction with the external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... by Mukhopadhyay and Baskaran [ 8 ] in a recirculating system containing 100 ppb dissolved sulfide confirmed the formation of copper sulfide as a reaction product. This study also confirmed that the dissolved oxygen level was greatly reduced in the presence of sulfides. The formation of copper sulfide, coupled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., the protection deteriorates rapidly above 100°C 7 . Furthermore, titanium is notably immune to galvanic corrosion, but tends to accelerate the corrosion of the other metal with which a galvanic couple is formed 8 . In a galvanic couple, the cathodic titanium may absorb the hydrogen evolved in the reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists of an anode (which liberates electrons and corrodes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because it is the algebraic sum of the currents due to anodic and cathodic reactions. When cathodic currents are appreciable at the mixed potential of the galvanic couple, the measured galvanic current will be significantly lower than the true current. Therefore, large differences between the true...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... with the observations made at Cape Kennedy. The grease was an insulator between the dissimilar metal couples, and it eliminated the galvanic cell reaction. Even bolts heat treated to maximum hardness did not fail as long as the grease remained intact. Nickel-cadmium plating gave inadequate protection because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reaction (generally a metal dissolution or oxide formation) and a cathodic reduction (such as proton or oxygen reduction) proceed simultaneously. In most normal water environments, the overall reaction for aluminum corrosion is reaction with water to form hydrogen and aluminum hydroxide which has very low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... particulate air filters. The failure analysis investigation concluded that nitrate-induced stress-corrosion cracking was the cause of the failure. vent pipe nitrate-induced stress-corrosion cracking welding defects galvanized low-carbon steel MnS inclusions ion-coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... stress cracking. Failures occurred in only a few hours with stainless steel because it apparently accelerated the reaction by galvanic coupling. Specimens tested to the same stress levels in titanium fixtures often took several times as long to fail. The obvious solution to the problem was to replace...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the surfaces of the coupling at locations of corrosive attack, suggests that it was either a byproduct of the corrosion process or a residue left behind by some other reaction associated with the corrosion process. The pervasiveness of the nonmetallic deposit, as characterized previously, was an indication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthesis is limited in the context of this article to above-ground facilities and submerged structures that receive sunlight. For covered and closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism depends on energy derived electrochemically from oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. The realization that corrosion control can be profitable has been acknowledged repeatedly by industry, typically following costly business interruptions. This article describes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Shaft misalignment and rotor unbalance contribute to the premature failure of many machine components. To understand how these failures occur and quantify the effects, investigators developed a model of a rotating assembly, including a motor, flexible coupling, driveshaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A bent Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pest, a type of degradation that occurs at low temperatures. Based on the results of the investigation, which included SEM/EDS analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the failure, a Fault Tree was theoretically built, and the structural variations of the failed encapsulant were characterized compared with the normal encapsulant, using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), x-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and differential scanning calorimetry coupled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... by a eutectoid reaction at 570 C. Thus, from a study of phases present in the scale, it is possible to establish whether it was formed above or below 570 C. The eutectoid reaction is slow and so wustite formed above 570 C is normally retained in a metastable form at room temperature. In a typical high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to result from hydrogen embrittlement. Initially, surface corrosion occurs and hydrogen evolved from the cathodic reaction diffuses into the material thus reducing the local fracture toughness and resulting in crack propagation. The cracking which developed may therefore have been due to a combination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., nondestructive testing, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The tube was made from SA 210A1 carbon steel that had been compromised by wall thinning and the accumulation of fire and water-side scale deposits. Investigators determined that the tube failed due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... probable source was hydrogen pickup from chemical milling coupled with the presence of a subsurface defect in the extruded material. Hydrogen atoms; that is, nascent hydrogen, are produced from the following chemical reaction: 2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H 2 O   …   2 NaAlO 2 + 3 H 2...