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cost estimation

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Moose Jaw, Sask., 1 Dec. 1980—Fire rages following the rupture of a 100 000 bbl (15 900 m 3 ) crude oil storage tank. No injuries were reported, but extensive damage was caused to a four block area in the city's industrial section. Estimated cost of damage and cleanup: $8.5 million More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., by the application of the methods given in this case study to estimate the metal temperature and stresses, it is possible to predict the life of turbine blades under similar operating conditions. This method is cost-effective and less time-consuming than a rigorous engineering analysis, which may require...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cost of all the piping was estimated at over $1,000,000, not including potential cost penalties for delayed startup of the nuclear power plant. Pipe replacement costs were particularly high (approximately $2,000/ft.) due to the necessity to erect scaffolding, extensive welding in potentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the direct and indirect cost of fracture in the United States. In 1982, it was estimated that $120 billion was spent annually to cover direct costs and costs associated with fracture-related accidents ( Ref 1 ). In 2004, the costs to the U.S. economy were approximately $232 billion per year. The estimates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Although failure of the shaft resulted in significant service time and costs, no injuries or substantial damage were sustained. The primary driving force behind conducting the failure analysis was the relative age of the shaft (33 years) and the number of systems in the tug fleet with components of similar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... problem in which there are several random design factors presents a difficult mathematical challenge when the goal is to estimate the failure probability, particularly small probabilities typical of structural life assessments. A sequence of contributions made between 1974 and 1990 ( Ref 4 , 5 , 6 , 7...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Standards commissioned a study to determine the direct and indirect cost of fracture in the United States. It was estimated that $120 billion are spent annually to cover direct costs and costs associated with fracture-related accidents ( Ref 1 ). The estimates took into account the necessity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... (a) Temperature effect on fatigue crack threshold and growth rates. (b) Variation of fatigue crack growth rates at Δ K of 30 MPa m (27 ksi in. ) Fatigue life assessment can be estimated using three different methods. The method selected depends on whether one is evaluating the fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that save transportation and energy costs and lower the carbon footprint of doing so. On the other hand, of the tons and tons of waste in the oceans, we only hear about that which has not sunk, namely, those with a specific gravity that is less than 1—plastics. This is recited herein to remind us...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... investigation. The discussion centers around the question of how to determine whether the failure was a fatigue induced failure, occurring in accordance with normal life cycle estimates, or whether outside influences could have initiated or hastened the failure. Turbine blades Turbine blade steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to corrosion damage, from the data gathered, ascertain the overall condition of the pipes in the system, and, estimate the remaining life of the system. Visual observations on the inner diametral surfaces of the sampled pipes revealed that the pipes were in almost all cases filled with corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to estimate a probability in the [10 −6 , 10 −5 ] range with confidence). The gain in refining the uncertainty characterization into two groups is at the cost of an increased complexity both in terms of implementation and presentation. Talking about probability over probability may quickly confuse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... elongation. The time to reach the additional 5% elongation (thus tertiary creep) can be estimated by extrapolation of the test results to the service temperature (solid line): 20,000 hrs. This is low compared to the time-to-rupture. Furthermore, it is observed that the line for the time to reach 5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with its environment. In a study by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), it was estimated that the annual cost of corrosion was between $121 and $138 billion in 1998 in the United States. These costs included cost of corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of a 100 000 bbl (15 900 m 3 ) crude oil storage tank. No injuries were reported, but extensive damage was caused to a four block area in the city's industrial section. Estimated cost of damage and cleanup: $8.5 million. (Police Dept., City of Moose Jaw) On-Site Inspection Reveals Area of Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exchanger tubes were severely blocked. The cost to clean the tubes was significant and it was decided that instead of attempting to locate the leaks, it may be as feasible to analyze some of the corroded tubes and characterize some of the corrosion that had occurred. Several tubes were selected and visually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and time of exposure that caused the shell to rupture? To address this question, the time for the shell wall to fail at elevated temperatures was estimated by calculating the approximate shell stress at its internal pressure and comparing this stress and exposure temperature to the stress rupture curve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... techniques—all at an acceptable cost. For the material selection process to be successful, it should be intimately involved during part design and in selecting the manufacturing process, processing conditions, and post assembly procedures, as well as during mold design. Of course, it is important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be the top priority for the design team, not the concept with the shortest development timeline or lowest development cost. Conceptual Design Review Once the solution ideation and analysis are completed, a concept design review should be conducted. This will cement the suitability of the ideal concept...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... AND THEIR ALLOYS is a major problem that must be dealt with in many applications. A study from NACE International in 2016 estimated the global cost of corrosion at 3.4% of the global gross domestic product, which at that time was approximately $2.5 trillion ( Ref 1 ). This makes repairing and preventing corrosion...