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corrosion potential

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... It was recommended that the design be modified to avoid dissimilar metal combinations of high corrosion potential. Airplanes Steels Transition joints 7014 UNS A97014 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Discussion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the material after its design stress had been exceeded. It was recommended that steel with a higher chromium content be used to mitigate the erosion corrosion potential in the lines and that more rigorous nondestructive (ultrasonic) examinations be performed. Nuclear reactor components Pipe bends...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the corrosion process. The basic cause of degradation was found to be hot corrosion caused by the deposition of alkali sulfates and chlorides. However this degradation may have been aggravated by thermal cycling and abrasion. The source of the salt was impurities in the flux. Two potential solutions were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the delamination survey, potential and corrosion mapping, concrete chemistry, and concrete physical properties. The major cause of corrosion damage appears to have been the presence of both pre-existing and environmentally-delivered chlorides in the concrete. Bridges Cements Chlorides Support beams Steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... because of its resistance to chloride and sulfuric acid dewpoint corrosion under conditions potentially present in the HRSG low-pressure feedwater economizer. Intergranular corrosion and cracking were found in the weld metal and heat-affected zones. The hardness in these regions was up to 35 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ppm Cl − , the E pp value decreases to about +350 mV. These diagrams were obtained at a scan rate of 10 mV/min in nondeaerated solutions, analogous to service conditions. The oxygen level in stagnant service water could be at saturation. Therefore, a corrosion potential greater than +350 mV could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surface of the tube were identified as fluorides from the brazing flux by chemical analysis. The nature of the crack, potential for corrosion due to residual fluorides and residual swaging stress in the tube prior to brazing, confirmed that failure of the tube end was due to stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Numerous cracks observed on the surface of a forged A470 Class 4 alloy steel steam turbine rotor disc from an air compressor in a nitric acid plant were found to be the result of caustic induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). No material defects or anomalies were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Several surgical tool failures were analyzed to understand why they occur and how to prevent them. The study included drills, catheters, and needles subjected to the rigors of biomedical applications such as corrosive environments, high stresses, sterilization, and improper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and hardness testing, 119x SEM images, and potassium dichromate etched 297x metallographic images) supported the conclusion that the bronze gear cracked via mixed-mode overload, rather than by a progressive mechanism such as fatigue or stress-corrosion cracking. The cracking was not associated with regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (0.120 in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...: ensuring that 100% magnetic particle inspections are conducted after bolts are tempered; using dull cadmium plate or an alternative to the electrode position process, such as vacuum cadmium plate or ion-plate or ion-plated aluminum, to mitigate the potential for delayed failures due to hydrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... The three essential components for galvanic corrosion are: Materials possessing different surface potential A common electrolyte A common electrical path A mixed-metal system in a common electrolyte that is electrically isolated will not experience galvanic corrosion, regardless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 23 ). The lower the electron work function of a metal, the higher its reactivity ( Ref 21 , 24 ). Formation of localized electrochemical cells, which accelerate corrosion. When two metals in contact having different electrode potentials or activities are in a corrosive environment, the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). This action is seen in Fig. 2 where a couple is made up of steel and mill scale. Fig. 2 Breaks in mill scale (Fe 3 O 4 ) leading to galvanic corrosion of steel The three essential components for galvanic corrosion are: Materials possessing different surface potential A common...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 1 Corrosion characteristics of an active-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode potential) Fig. 4 Corrosion failure of 100-year-old riveted steel water transmission main. Courtesy of S. Paul, CorrTech, Inc. Fig. 6 Severely deteriorated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...: Reducing the tensile stress in the screws Using a more galvanically-compatible material for the screw that has a lower corrosion potential when in contact with aluminum Coating the screws with a suitable material, followed by an appropriate baking treatment to remove whatever hydrogen might have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of their investigation to the approach selected. A common categorization method is to divide potential damage mechanisms into four categories of failure modes, including: Distortion Fracture Corrosion Wear The appeal of this classic system is its simplicity and ease of organization...