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corrosion characteristics

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... observed on the inner wall showed obvious vapor oxidation corrosion characteristics. Corrosion originated in the grain boundary, and selective oxidation occurred due to ion diffusion in the substrate. The layered oxide scale on the inner wall is related to the different diffusion rates for different...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... joining the tube sheet to the floating skirt. Cracks penetrated deep into the tube sheet, and occasionally into the tube walls. The microstructures of both alloys and of the weld appeared normal. Intergranular corrosion characteristic of end-grain attack was apparent. A low dead spot at the skirt / tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... space. This was characteristic of corrosion fatigue. The second type of cracking originated at some of the major cracks. These cracks were branched and transgranular, which is characteristic of stress-corrosion caused by chlorides. The third crack mode, an intergranular network, was most probably...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... There was no question that the material failed as a result of exfoliation corrosion, so an investigation was undertaken, centered around the study of thermal treatments that would increase the exfoliation resistance and still develop the required 448 MPa (65 ksi) yield strength. The results of the study concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., are less likely to alter either the microstructure or the characteristics of steam-side or fire-side scale, deposits, or corrosion products than is flame cutting. Mechanical methods, although generally preferred, are slow and sometimes cannot be used, because samples are inaccessible to the necessary tools...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article commences with a discussion on the characteristics of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and describes crack initiation and propagation during SCC. It reviews the various mechanisms of SCC and addresses electrochemical and stress-sorption theories. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-induced embrittlement. This phenomenon shares many of these characteristics with other modes of environmentally induced cracking, such as hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking. The discussion covers the occurrence, failure analysis, and service failures of the embrittlement. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion in a closed-loop cooling water system constructed of austenitic stainless steel occurred during an extended lay up of the system with biologically contaminated water. The characteristics of the failure were those of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...). The pipe had developed cracks on the inside surface coincident with an external support gusset. The cracks initiated at wide corrosion grooves. The early stages were corrosion-assisted fatigue cracks. The cracks initiated at the corrosion grooves and propagated as transgranular SCC with characteristic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... sent back to the manufacturer for repair. Some of the units failed the hydrostatic test after they were repaired. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of branched transgranular cracks characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking. Only some of the tubes failed and these did so by stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the crack showed that the fracture faces were corroded. Optical examination of either side of the middle group of fastener holes showed that the area of suspected crack initiation had suffered excessive corrosion. Examination of the holes on the end of the crack showed fracture characteristics typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... tungsten arc welded tailpipes should be postweld annealed by re-solution treatment to redissolve all particles of carbide in the HAZ. Also, it was suggested that resistance seam welding be used, because there would be no corrosion problem with the faster cooling rate characteristic of this technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a tube was removed and split, revealing a series of cracks, evenly spaced. Crack spacing coincided with fin spacing, indicating that stresses incurred during installation of the fins promoted failure. Metallographic examination showed intergranular, branched cracking, characteristic of stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The failure was initially thought to be the result of thermal fatigue, and the internal surfaces exhibited the “elephant hide” pattern characteristic of thermal fatigue. However metallographic failure analysis found that this pattern was the result of corrosion rather than thermal fatigue. Corrosion caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion and describes the corrosion resistance characteristics of specific classes of refractories and structural ceramics. The article also examines the prevention strategies that minimize corrosion failures of both classes of materials. aerospace industry automotive industry chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that was denickelified (top) and unaffected base metal (bottom). Etched with equal parts nitric and acetic acid. 375× Abstract Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tubing of heat exchangers with respect to general corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, selective leaching, and oxygen-cell attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... it to be an austenitic nickel-chromium stainless steel, stabilized by titanium and of the free machining type. Multiple transgranular cracking characteristic of failure from stress-corrosion cracking, was present to an extensive degree. It was considered probable that there had been slight leakage of water from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for steam turbine rotors/discs, carbon and alloy steel components in boilers Residential and industrial water-delivery systems: Stainless steel PEX clamps (described earlier) and brass components General Characteristics of Stress-Corrosion Cracking The phenomenological characteristics of SCC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the weld deposit. While the fracture in the weld metal was of the ductile type exhibiting a fine fibrous appearance, that in the flange material was of the cleavage type. Microscopic examination revealed that the cracks were blunt-ended fissures of the type characteristic of corrosion-fatigue...