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corroded metal surface

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to be associated with the surfaces of the titanium particles in the pyrotechnic by nuclear magnetic resonance. It was proposed that the chlorine-containing residue combined with the water from the pyrotechnic to form a thin aqueous film corroding the bridgewire and pins. A new cleaning procedure was implemented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... metallographically and with a SEM in the laboratory. The examinations revealed a combination of failure mechanisms. The pitting failure of the welds was attributed to localized attack of an activated surface, in which anodic pits corroded rapidly. Additionally, SCC driven by residual welding stresses occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the jet fuel. Pitting attack occurred under microbial deposits on the metal surface in the water phase or at the water-fuel interface. Previously, exposure of aluminum 7075 to cultures of various isolates showed that 27 bacterial isolates and 3 fungi could seriously corrode the aluminum alloy over several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and bottom pieces of the impeller appeared to have originally been one single metallic detail before the fins had corroded away ( Fig. 1 ). The edges of the fins had a reddish copper color in them ( Fig. 2 ). The internal surfaces showed a directionality of corrosion typical of erosion due to the mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... in the alloy used in the valve. Manganese sulfide stringers in the valve were exposed at end-grain surfaces in contact with the beverage. The stringers, which were anodic to the surrounding metal, were subject to corrosion, producing a hydrogen sulfide concentration in the immediately adjacent liquid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... was nonrecirculated seawater. The heat exchanger tube which failed was analyzed by using SEM, EDS and metallographic techniques and is shown in Figure 1a . Fig. 1 Cupronickel failure: (a) failed cupronickel tube; and, (b) SEM micrograph of corroded surface. The corrosion reaction began on the tube...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determine what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion.” Galvanic corrosion applies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... what inspection and maintenance action, if any, should be taken. All corrosion reactions are electrochemical in nature and depend on the operation of electrochemical cells at the metal surface. This mechanism is discussed in the first section, “Galvanic Corrosion,” in this article. Galvanic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... metallurgist or metallographer is certainly familiar with the phenomenon known as microbiologically influenced corrosion, or MIC. However, many new to the field may be surprised to learn that there are microorganisms that can actually corrode metal via iron-oxidizing or sulfur-reducing processes. MIC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... As on all the tubes, the insulating packing and brick of the hearth interfered with loss of heat by radiation, which was unhindered on the portions of the tubes that were freely exposed to the furnace atmosphere. Within the hearth, the metal of the tube wall near its outer surface and in the corroded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) Same as (a) except for forward pin. (c) Top surface of forward pin showing slight bend at left end. (d) Micrograph showing pits in base metal under cracks in chromium plating. Etched with nital. 100×. (e) Electron fractograph showing corroded intergranular fracture surface at origin 1 on forward pin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... behind the Cr- and S-rich corrosion products. However attractive this description is for the products at the surface, its application is not valid for the formation of products deep into the wall. Fig. 8 shows two areas (B and C) of a corroded region which are rich in Cr and S but contain no Co. Thus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 304 stainless steel tubes. Visual and stereoscopic examination revealed three types of corrosion on the inside surfaces of the tubes: uniform attack, deeper localized corrosive attack, and accelerated uniform attack. Metallographic analysis indicated that pronounced dissimilar-metal corrosion had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Nineteen out of 26 bolts in a multistage water pump corroded and cracked after a short time in a severe working environment containing saline water, CO 2 , and H 2 S. The failed bolts and intact nuts were to be made from a special type of stainless steel as per ASTM A 193 B8S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and microscopic analysis revealed several large and small well rounded corrosion pits present at the inner diametral surfaces. The cause of corrosion was attributed to corrosive waters that were not only corroding the copper, but were corroding steel pipes upstream from the tubing. Grinding mills Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions; red, orange, or brown deposits associated with pits Ref 116 Iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) Decrease in pH due to oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ in and over pits Red-orange corrosion products with iron (III) oxides in top crust, enhanced IOB (e.g., Gallionella ), acidic pH at metal surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., the corroded areas had relatively less amounts of deposit. Testing Procedure and Results Surface Examination Scanning Electron Microscopy Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the corroded surface, while EDX analysis was carried out on the corroded areas to identify...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stresses for the three assumed flaw lengths. The predicted failure pressure for the corroded area is based on treating the loss of metal as a part-through or surface flaw in the pipe ( Ref 3 ). A grid is drawn on the corroded area, and remaining wall-thickness measurements are made from which a contour...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...), showing corrosion products on surface. Specimen Selection Several corroded grate bars were carefully removed from a grate box and packaged in plastic bags to avoid contamination and loss of surface scale. The bars were examined metallographically and by using electron microscopy. Chemical and X...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... erosion in the leading and the trailing edge areas. (a) Leading edge; (b) Trailing edge. Arrows indicating severe corrosion. Both optical and SEM examination of the fracture surfaces, Figures 12 and 15 , showed them to be so severely corroded that virtually no evidence of conventional fracture...