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copper-lead bearing alloys

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the classification of sliding bearings and describes the major groups of soft metal bearing materials: babbitts, copper-lead bearing alloys, bronze, and aluminum alloys. It provides a discussion on the methods for fluid-film lubrication in bearings. The article...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Micrograph of a section through a copper-lead alloy bearing that failed by deleading. Light area at the upper surface is the copper matrix that remained after the alloy was depleted of lead. As-polished. 100× More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 Micrograph of a section through a copper-lead alloy bearing that failed by deleading. Light area at the upper surface is the copper matrix that remained after the alloy was depleted of lead. As-polished. Original magnification: 100× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Examination of a connecting-rod shell bearing from a six-cylinder gasoline engine was done after it was returned to the factory. Copper-lead alloy SAE 485 bonded to a low-carbon steel backing was used to make the bearing and the oil used in the engine was the recommended one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to a substantial increase in friction and wear. Bearing Materials This portion of the article provides an overview of bearing materials ( Ref 2 ). Metals such as tin alloy, copper alloy, lead-base Babbitt, and nodular cast iron have been used as bearing materials for a very long time. These materials have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the establishment of a well-protected transfer layer and leads to rapid wear. Failure Leaded bronze bearing Metallic wear debris Cu-7.6Sn-17.4Pb Cu-6.6Sn-5.8Pb (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear 1. Introduction Copper-based alloys have been of great practical importance in industrial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and lead with a minor amount of tin. These elements are the major constituents of the bronze friction bearing. The copper-penetration failure occurred in the following sequence: The bearing surface was heated by friction because of loss of lubrication The babbitt metal lining melts between about...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.../Identification Chemical analyses revealed that the 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) valve was machined from copper alloy 353 and the 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) valve was copper alloy 360. Both are lead-bearing, free-machining, low-copper brasses. Discussion The features exhibited by the valve stems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... analysis showed that copper, lead, and tin were present in the cracks. The following sequence of events for the failure was proposed: Bearing surface friction causes loss of lubrication. Babbitt metal lining melts at 240–315 °C, and wets the surface, but no penetration takes place. Babbitt...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Titanium Hg, Cd, Ag, Au It should be pointed out that alloys of these embrittler metals can also be embrittling. In fact, for service failures, the embrittling metal is probably not pure but is impure or an alloy. For example, tin- and lead-base bearing alloys and solders also cause metal-induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of these embrittler metals can also be embrittling. In fact, for service failures, the embrittling metal is probably not pure but is impure or an alloy. For example, tin- and lead-base bearing alloys and solders also cause metal-induced embrittlement. Furthermore, some alloy additions to embrittling metals have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A failure analysis was conducted on brass alloy 270 heat exchanger tubes that were pulled from a unit used to cool oil for the speed regulators and thrust bearings of a hydroelectric power plant. The tubes began to leak after approximately 5.5 years of service. Macrophotography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... C37800 (copper-zinc-lead (brass) alloy) Introduction Rolling-element bearings with diverse variants including ball, needle, cylindrical roller, spherical roller, tapered roller, etc. are the most widely used type of bearings because of their excellent tradeoff between size, cost, and performance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a crashed helicopter, and LME of a steel gear by a copper alloy from an overheated bearing. The case histories illustrate how LME and SMIE failures can be diagnosed and distinguished from other failure modes, and shed light on the underlying causes of failure and how they might be prevented. The application...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for aluminum alloys, copper alloys, carbon steel, stainless steel, and titanium alloys ( Ref 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). Industry Examples of Cavitation Failure Cavitation in Bearings Cavitation damage in oil-lubricated bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... with Molten Copper, Aluminum and Lead,” Russian Metallurgy , Vol. 1 , pp. 61 – 64 ( 1976 ). 11. Heiple C. , Bennett W. and Rising T. , “Embrittlement of Several Stainless Steels by Liquid Copper and Liquid Braze Alloys,” Matls. Sci. and Eng. , Vol. 52 , pp. 277 – 289 ( 1982...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of highest stresses, but also done faultily. This must inevitably lead to fracture. The joint bar of a dredger cast out of a running non-alloyed steel with 39 kg/mm 2 tensile strength, which had been strengthened by welding plate strips on both sides had fractured in service. It showed a fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... In experiments with a steel ball on a steel flat, in which the hardness was varied from 220 to 850 HV, there was little difference in the wear loss ( Ref 46 ). In crossed-cylinder experiments with three alloys of the same crystal structure, increasing hardness is shown to lead to a decrease in the critical...