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copper production

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the subject of a failure investigation to determine the cause and location of the leaks. Corrosion products primarily contained copper oxide, as would be expected from a copper tubing. The product also exhibited the presence of a significant amount of iron oxides. Metallographic cross sectioning of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of five case histories on the failure of copper and steels as used in potable and non-potable water systems. The case histories cover a range of applications in which copper and steel products have been used. Copper and steel pipes are the two most commonly used materials in residential, commercial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... mg/l. Analysis of corrosion product removed from the ID surfaces of the pipe section revealed that an environment rich in carbonates existed inside the pipe, a result of the hard water supply. The products observed were primarily copper carbonate-hydroxides and copper oxides. Table 1 and 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., the presence of sulfur (5 wt.pct.) at the alloy/crystal interface is indicative of redeposition of copper since copper and nickel are known to diffuse outward through the reaction products. Although no copper sulfide phase was observed, the source of the sulfur at this interface could only have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract In a copper hot water system, a bent pipe was soldered into a straight pipe with twice the diameter. The neighborhood of the soldered joint was covered with corrosion product predominantly blue-green in color, presumably carbonates. When these corrosion products were scratched off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Stems and seats removed from two valves Fig. 2 Micrograph showing the surface profile in one of the grooved areas. 62× Abstract Two hot water reheat coil valves from a heating/ventilating/air-conditioning system failed in service. The values, a 353 copper alloy 19 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Figure 1 shows the microbes that were cultured from the corrosion product. They were found to be sulfur-reducing bacteria. Uniform thinning occurred when the resultant oxide on the copper pipe surface eroded in low flow rates. The threshold for erosion by turbulent waters is much lower with this type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., perpendicular to the lead length, were observed with corrosion products/oxides in the crack. Some areas with flaked plating were also observed. SEM examination and EDX/WDX analyses showed the corrosion products to be oxides and chlorides of copper. Cross-section of the leads were metallographically prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-phosphorus side of the clad bimetal onto an epoxy film, so that the end product contained nickel-phosphorus sandwiched between copper and epoxy, with a chromate conversion layer on the epoxy side of the nickel-phosphorus. Peel testing showed abnormally low adhesion strength for the bad batch of peel test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also are covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed crack-like indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material was phosphorus-deoxidized copper. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., contains copper, chlorine, and oxygen. It is suggested that this corrosion product 3 is cupric hydroxychloride, CuCl 2 ·3[Cu(OH) 2 ]. The chlorine could be from the city water and/or the spring-pit water. A recent analysis of the city water shows a chloride content of 9.6 mg/l, which is much lower than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... microscopy. The corrosion product contained molybdenum and copper with a trace of gold. The base material was analyzed as molybdenum with negligible alloying additions. The primary mode of corrosion attack on the base material appeared to be intergranular, although uniform corrosion was evident also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) Abstract Copper electrical feedthrough pins used in a bolting application in a refrigeration compressor had functioned without failure for years of production and thousands of units. When some of the pins began to fail, an investigation was conducted to determine the cause. Visual examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract Ball joints made from carburized En 353 (BS970:815A16) steel failed after several hours of being fitted into vehicles. The parts were forged, machined, and thread rolled. The threads were copper plated to prevent carburization. The heat treatment consisted of carburizing in a cyanide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Recommendations The piping required replacement with a more corrosion-resistant material. Corrosion By-Products Copper alloys with a copper content greater than 85% are resistant to dezincification. Copper alloys such as red brass (UNS C23000), inhibited Admiralty brass (UNS C44300), and arsenical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... 5% antimony, which is more difficult to use than the usual tin-lead alloys. The use of this particular type of solder was a contributory factor in the production of unsound joints in the samples examined. Expansion Freezing Moisture Pipe joints Wetting Sn-5Sb Copper Joining-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steel etched with electrolytic oxalic acid Erosion Turbulance and particulate in liquids can cause erosion, removing material with no corrosion product apparent. The surface exhibits bare metal. Erosion is usually classified as a type of wear ( Fig. 15 ). Fig. 15 (a) Erosion in copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stabilizer. In addition to the PC housing, the design of the switch included an external protective zinc component installed with a snap-fit and two retained copper press-fit contact inserts. Control parts representing an earlier production lot were available for reference purposes. Tests and Results...