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copper metallization

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is readily susceptible to dezincification. Recommendations included replacing the material with copper alloy C68700 (arsenical aluminum brass), which contains 0.02 to 0.06% As and is highly resistant to dezincification. Copper alloy C44300 (inhibited admiralty metal) could be an alternative selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two hot water reheat coil valves from a heating/ventilating/air-conditioning system failed in service. The values, a 353 copper alloy 19 mm (3/4 in.) valve and a 360 copper alloy 13 mm (1/2 in.) valve, had been failing at an increasing rate. The failures were confined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and cracking from hydride formation. The article focuses on the types of hydrogen embrittlement that occur in all the major commercial metal and alloy systems, including stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, copper and copper alloys, and transition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A welded joint between lengths of 4 in. OD x 13 SWG copper pipe which formed part of a cold-water main failed by cracking over one-third of the circumference. Microscopic examination of the filler metal showed that it had a structure corresponding to a brass of the 60:40 type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the fixture surface and that this could have penetrated the stainless steel in the presence of tensile thermal-contraction stresses. The cracks in the weldments were a form of liquid-metal embrittlement caused by contact with superficially melted copper from the fixture and subsequent grain-boundary attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was filled with an oxide scale in which were embedded particles having the appearance of metallic copper. It was concluded that the cracking that occurred at the time of re-welding was due to intergranular penetration by copper present in the deposit within the tubes, which had not been completely removed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of copper, 1083 deg C (1981 deg F), molten metal came into contact with the bolt, into which it penetrated along the grain boundaries, culminating in rupture. Bolts Copper Liquid metals Overheating Penetration Steel bolt Liquid metal induced embrittlement Intergranular fracture The head...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for potential casting applications so that the likelihood of failure to perform the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the submerged arc process with a backing strip. The backing was back gouged off, and the weld was completed from the inside with E8018-C3 electrodes by the shielded metal arc process. Striations of the type normally associated with progressive or fatigue-type failures including beach marks that allowed tracing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... installations were examined. It was found that fracture of the bolts was by intergranular stress corrosion. A metallic copper-containing antiseizure compound on the bolts in a corrosive medium set up an electro-chemical cell that produced trenchlike fissures or pits for fracture initiation. Because the bolts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., but exceptionally high copper content was noticeable. Microstructural examination showed the damage was due to overheating and burning during preheating and bending. Furthermore, crack formation was promoted by precipitation of metallic copper that had penetrated into the austenitic grain boundaries under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two new chrome-plated CDA 377 brass valves intended for inert gas service failed on initial installation. After a pickling operation to clean the metal, the outer surfaces of the valves had been flashed with copper and then plated with nickel and chromium for aesthetic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Waterwall tube failure samples removed from a coal- and oil-fired boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The primary purpose of this article is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in the bulk...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and gas metal arc welding; neither preheating nor postheating was specified. The filler metal was E70S-6 continuous consumable wire with a copper coating to protect it from atmospheric oxidation while on the reel. Analysis of the two castings revealed that the carbon content was higher than specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., e.g. for copper and oxidized cadmium, but are often not obvious even using high-resolution SEM/EDS. The films are also too thin to be apparent within secondary cracks on metallographic sections. Very thin embrittling-metal films can, however, be detected using surface-sensitive techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The operator of an electric transit system purchased a large number of tin-plated copper connectors, putting some in service and others in reserve. Later, when some of the reserve connectors were inspected, the metal surfaces were covered with spots consisting of an ash-like...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of soft metal bearing materials: babbitts, copper-lead bearing alloys, bronze, and aluminum alloys. It provides a discussion on the methods for fluid-film lubrication in bearings. The article presents the variables of interest for a rotating shaft and the load-carrying capacity and surface roughness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... systems. Most metals, including iron, copper, nickel, aluminum, and their alloys, are more or less susceptible to damage ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Only titanium and its alloys appear to be generally resistant ( Ref 4 ). This review focuses initially on the mechanisms of microbially induced or influenced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., although not necessarily improper, result in similar carbide precipitation. The path of SCC in some metals is not governed completely by composition and structure of the metal but is also influenced by the environment. For example, the path of cracking in copper-zinc alloys can be made transgranular...