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copper contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
..., scanning electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Contaminant Particles Failure Analysis Procedure Bearing Failures Wear Mechanisms in General Fatigue Electrical Erosion Fretting Corrosion Example 1: Corrosion of Copper-Lead Alloy Sliding Bearings by Sulfur Compounds Corrosion Fatigue Example 2: Corrosion-Fatigue Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was thought to be contamination occurring in the casting process that became concentrated in the recycled skimmings. It was recommended that future material specifications for skimmings and for externally obtained scrap copper include a trace analysis for tellurium. Cupronickel Embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Such features are characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking in a copper heat exchanger tube. The crack path is shown in Fig. 1(c) . The service contractor responsible for maintaining the absorption unit suspected that mercury contamination from a manometer was the cause of the stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , Ed., TMS/AIME , 1984 24. Holbert R.K. Jr. , Dobbins A.G. , Bennett R.K. Jr. , Copper Contamination Cracking in Thin Stainless Steel Sheet , Weld. J. , Aug 1987 , p 38 25. Sproat R.L. , “The SPS Study of the Cracking of Titanium Bolts in the Presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Embrittlement by Liquid and Solid Metal , Kamdar M.H. , Ed., TMS/AIME 24. Holbert R.K. Jr. , Dobbins A.G. , and Bennett R.K. Jr. , Copper Contamination Cracking in Thin Stainless Steel Sheet , Weld. J. , Aug 1987 , p 38 25. McDonalt M.M. Corrosion of Brazed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... In a subsequent study ( Ref 41 ), the Gleeble high strain rate hot-tensile test machine was used to determine the influence of temperature, atmosphere, stress, grain size, strain rate, and amount of copper on LME of iron- and cobalt-base superalloys. A copper contamination of only 0.08-mm (0.003-in.) thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... plating in a plated through hole was due to presence of contaminants or air bubbles in the hole during the plating process. In the present case, the copper plating was very thin in the failure area and did make an electrical contact during initial testing. During thermal cycling, differential z-expansion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of typical discolored parts are detailed in Table 2 , with the spectra shown in Fig. 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 . Because very low levels of contaminants were present in the discolored regions, EDS analysis was able to reveal only small amounts of carbon and oxygen in those areas, in addition to the copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., next provides an overview of bearing materials, and then presents the various lubrication mechanisms: hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, boundary lubrication, elastohydrodynamic, and squeeze-film lubrication. The article describes the effect of debris and contaminant particles in bearings. The steps involved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A batch of bimetal foil/epoxy laminates was rejected because of poor peel strength. The laminates were manufactured by sintering a nickel/phosphorus powder layer to a copper foil, cleaning, then chromate conversion coating the nickel-phosphorus surface, and laminating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... as primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides while the green deposit was revealed to be copper chloride. The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes was concluded to have resulted in the failure. Injection of ferrous sulfate upstream of the condenser which could aid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
....a0003548 • Cohen A. , Corrosion of Copper and Copper Alloys, Corrosion: Materials , Vol 13B , Cramer and Covino B.S. , Ed., ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2005 , p 125 – 163 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816 A corroded pump impeller that was indicated to have been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hydroxide [CuCO 3 ·Cu(OH) 2 ] would be the expected corrosion product. Bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) and carbonate (CO 3 ) radicals, which are needed for the formation of copper carbonate hydroxide, are present as contaminants in most naturally occurring waters. Leakage from the horizontal heat-exchanger tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... design. The weld zones were completely encapsulated in plastic, molded to provide a gasket surface. The undesirable chlorine residues were the result of contamination. After a methodical check of chlorine sources (trichloroethane degreasers, hydrochloric acid pickling solutions, sodium chloride water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... contamination in the refrigerant. Chemical analysis Corrosion products Cylinders Discoloration Freezers Refrigerants Nickel alloy (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A cylinder from a commercial ice cream freezer showed discoloration along its outer diameter surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... A backscattered electron image showing surface contamination of a failed copper bourdon tube in a pressure regulator allows for targeted chemical analysis of the contamination. 23×, 20 kV accelerating voltage. Courtesy of C. Wright, NASA Scanning electron microscopy with EDS is probably the most common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... For electronic manufacturing, solder alloys with lead or copper are commonly used; they have a relatively low melting point (~180 to 220 °C, or 355 to 430 °F), good mechanical properties for impact and fatigue resistance, and decent thermal and electrical conductivity ( Ref 1 , 2 ). However, the risks...