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copper (copper contact alloy, general)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., which was confirmed as the failure mechanism in the investigation. electrical connectors tin pest plating defect copper alpha tin x-ray diffraction temperature copper (copper contact alloy, general) tin-bismuth (tin-bismuth plating alloy, general) Introduction Failure Background...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Contaminant Particles Failure Analysis Procedure Bearing Failures Wear Mechanisms in General Fatigue Electrical Erosion Fretting Corrosion Example 1: Corrosion of Copper-Lead Alloy Sliding Bearings by Sulfur Compounds Corrosion Fatigue Example 2: Corrosion-Fatigue Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that molten copper, or copper alloys, will embrittle steels under the proper conditions. The steel must be austenitic with tensile stresses present. Carbon steels contacting liquid copper will be heated into the fully austenitic range. Liquid copper will penetrate the austenitic grain boundaries. The speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... However, introducing textures into the contact region can also have the opposite effect if not done properly, leading to a substantial increase in friction and wear. This portion of the article provides an overview of bearing materials ( Ref 2 ). Metals such as tin alloy, copper alloy, lead-base...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract Electrical contact-finger retainers blanked and formed from annealed copper alloy C65500 (high-silicon bronze A) failed prematurely by cracking while in service in switchgear aboard seagoing vessels. In this service they were sheltered from the weather but subject to indirect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... In general, a narrow contact angle between the solder and the substrate is indicative of good wetting and could be used as a quick check for solderability. Note that these surface energies are not constant and are a function of various parameters, such as temperature, alloying elements, contaminants...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in galvanic couples with other metals or alloys. This effect is observed with gold and silver coatings on copper, nickel, aluminum, and their alloys. Uniform Corrosion Uniform corrosion, or general corrosion, is a corrosion process exhibiting uniform thinning that proceeds without appreciable localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-metal ions such as copper, mercury, or lead. Some aluminum alloys are used for sacrificial anodes in seawater. An active, anodic alloy is used to clad aluminum, protecting it against pitting in some applications. Contact of aluminum with more cathodic metals should be avoided in any environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Fusing of the switch contacts of a boiler feed pump drive motor led to the failure of a turbine. After rubbing of most of the Ni-Cr steel LP wheels had occurred, due to the admission of water carried over with the steam, a copper-rich alloy from the interstage gland rings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Joints . Corrosion , Vol 13 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , ASM International , 1987 , p 876 26. Heiple C. , Bennett W. , and Rising T. , Embrittlement of Several Stainless Steels by Liquid Copper and Liquid Braze Alloys , Mater. Sci. Eng. , Vol 52 , 1982 , p 177 10.1016...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of axle failures was conducted 3 . By this time, it was commonly accepted that almost all axle/journal-bearing failures were due to intergranular embrittlement of the steel by molten copper. The general consensus was that the steel must be heated to a temperature above the melting point of brass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a section through a heat-exchanger tube made of copper alloy C71000 (copper nickel, 20%). Water passing through the tube and steam in contact with the outer surface caused denickelification of the alloy at both inner and outer surfaces. The dealloying occurred along the grain boundaries, which have higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Cadmium Carbon or Alloy Steel and Lead Carbon or Alloy Steel and Zinc Carbon or Alloy Steel and Copper Stainless Steel and Zinc Stainless Steel and Copper Titanium-Cadmium In general, the subcritical crack follows a path such that its fracture surface is perpendicular to the maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blanked and formed from annealed copper alloy C65500 (high-silicon bronze A) failed prematurely by cracking while in service in switchgear aboard seagoing vessels. In this service they were sheltered from the weather but subject to indirect exposure to the sea air. About 50% of the contact-finger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Sadykov F. A. , Barykin N.P. , and Aslanyan I.R. : “Wear of Copper and Its Alloys With Submicrocrystalline Structure,” Wear , 1999 , 225–229 , pp. 649 – 55 . 4. Czupryk W. : “Frictional Transfer of Iron in Oxidative Wear Conditions During Lubricated Sliding,” Wear , 2000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in similar units is generally approximately 10 years. In this plant, river water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. The tubes were 9.5 mm (⅜ in.) in diameter with a 0.6 mm (0.025 in.) wall thickness and were made of copper alloy C70600 (copper nickel, 10%). This alloy is generally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface in the transverse direction mostly and occasionally in the longitudinal direction of the pipe axis ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Golden-yellow color copper-alloy streaks on pipe OD surface The pipe OD surface which corresponds to the plate’s bottom surface comes in contact with the Cu-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ed. , American Welding Society , 2007 12. AWS Committee on Brazing and Soldering , Brazing Handbook , 4th ed. , American Welding Society , 1991 , p 262 14. Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement of Titanium Alloys in Contact with Copper , Proceedings of the 12th World Conference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in electrical applications is the damage to aluminum that can occur when it is in contact with copper or copper alloys, Electrical joint compounds are available to inhibit corrosion in applications involving aluminum wire. Commercially available products consist of a grease-like base in which zinc particles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... systems. Most metals, including iron, copper, nickel, aluminum, and their alloys, are more or less susceptible to damage ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Only titanium and its alloys appear to be generally resistant ( Ref 4 ). This review focuses initially on the mechanisms of microbially induced or influenced...