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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and order of precipitation. Tests showed that a subsequent removal of this defect by solutioning was impractical because the annealing temperature was too high. To avoid this defect in the future the sole recommendation is to accelerate the cooling rate through the critical region between 1200 to 900 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... amount of retained austenite. This caused reduced wear resistance and thus rapid wear in service. Recommendations included avoiding an excessive austenitizing temperature and excessive cooling rates from the austenitizing temperature and controlling the chemical composition to avoid excessive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... tungsten arc welded tailpipes should be postweld annealed by re-solution treatment to redissolve all particles of carbide in the HAZ. Also, it was suggested that resistance seam welding be used, because there would be no corrosion problem with the faster cooling rate characteristic of this technique...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Microstructure of component that cracked during quenching. Phase transformation from γ to α′ martensite was incomplete and indicative of cooling rate <50°C. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., to obtain a complete (100%) transformation to martensite, a cooling rate of 200°C/s is required. This task is difficult to accomplish, often leading to the formation of a duplex structure consisting of the α′-martensitic phase and the (α + δ) phase. During the aging process, the α′-martensitic phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... annealed prior to finish machining. During the annealing treatment, after a 30 min soak at 1050 °C (1920 °F), component A was furnace cooled at a rate of 120 °C/h (215 °F/h), whereas component B was air cooled. Subsequently, the parts were pickled in a solution of 10 to 20% HNO 3 , 2 to 3% HF...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... but slow enough to minimize distortion Contamination Organic contamination (hydraulic fluids) Increases cooling rate during vapor phase Increases cooling rate during convection Increases tendency toward cracking and distortion Oxidation Increases viscosity Slows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of a casting can contribute to residual stresses if it entails sections of markedly different thicknesses, which can undergo different cooling rates in the mold. This effect can be minimized if the thinner sections are well insulated so that they cool at a lower rate. The use of chills to accelerate cooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... gave rise to the conclusion that it was formed either by the sole or contributive effect of these stresses. Cooling rate Cracking (fracturing) Pipe bends St 35.29 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Metalworking-related failures An elbow of 70 mm O. D. and 10 mm wall thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and was primarily dendritic near the region of cracking. No additional anomalies, such as the inclusions noted in Fig. 2 and 3 , were observed in the metallographic views. Of particular interest, the weld HAZ microstructure was also examined to evaluate the relative cooling rate during welding. The HAZ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the remainder of the stud and in the flange to produce martensite. The stresses imposed by the thermal gradients and the phase changes were sufficient to generate the cracks. High-temperature preheat and postheat treatments would have retarded the cooling rate and prevented the formation of martensite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... composition and grain size. Welding and Hardenability The hardenability variations described herein are also of great concern in the fusion welding of steels. The composition dictates the maximum heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld hardnesses along with a wide variety of heat input and cooling rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... place in the blade trailing edge. An estimate of the crack-growth rate for the stage II fatigue fracture region coupled with the metallographic results helped to identify the final mode of the turbine blade failure. A detailed metallographic and fractographic examination of the air-cooled vane revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A slide and the two guideways of a pump had to be disassembled already during run-in time after approximately 20 h because they had galled completely, before the rated speed of 800 rpm was reached. Chemical analysis of the slide showed the following composition: 3.60C, 3.22Graphite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heating and cooling cycles per hour for at least 16 h/day, or a minimum of 224 cycles/day. Steam and water pressure were 1035 kPa (150 psi) and 895 kPa (130 psi) respectively, and water-flow rate was estimated to be 1325 L/min (350 gal/min) based on pump capacity. Water-inlet temperature was 10 to 15 deg...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... and along crystallographic planes. Figure 1(f) shows the microstructure of a specimen from the chain link that was austenitized for 20 min at 1095 °C (2000 °F) and air cooled. In this small specimen, the cooling rate from the austenitizing temperature was sufficient to retain the austenitic structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for the crack formation. A fourth crankcase had cracked in the bore-hole of the frontal face. In this case the cause of the fracture was the low strength of a region that was caused by a bad microstructure further weakened by the bore hole. Casting defects Cooling rate Crankcases Gray iron Casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the tube wall, which appeared to have formed by pitting under the nodules, were revealed by visual examination. Steep sidewalls, which indicated a high rate of attack, were revealed by microscopic examination of a section through the pit which had penetrated the tube wall. The major constituent of reddish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...-cutting, a narrow band of material on each side of the cut was raised above the hardening temperature. When the torch had passed the rate of abstraction of heat from this zone by conduction into the cold mass of the rail was sufficiently rapid to amount to a quench and thus cause local hardening...