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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by their shape and order of precipitation. Tests showed that a subsequent removal of this defect by solutioning was impractical because the annealing temperature was too high. To avoid this defect in the future the sole recommendation is to accelerate the cooling rate through the critical region between 1200...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... tungsten arc welded tailpipes should be postweld annealed by re-solution treatment to redissolve all particles of carbide in the HAZ. Also, it was suggested that resistance seam welding be used, because there would be no corrosion problem with the faster cooling rate characteristic of this technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... from an excessive amount of retained austenite. This caused reduced wear resistance and thus rapid wear in service. Recommendations included avoiding an excessive austenitizing temperature and excessive cooling rates from the austenitizing temperature and controlling the chemical composition to avoid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract The circumstances surrounding the in-service failure of a cast Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 713LC) second stage turbine blade and a cast and coated Co-base superalloy (MAR-M302) first stage air-cooled vane in two turbine engines used for marine application are described...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A slide and the two guideways of a pump had to be disassembled already during run-in time after approximately 20 h because they had galled completely, before the rated speed of 800 rpm was reached. Chemical analysis of the slide showed the following composition: 3.60C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... subjected to 14 heating and cooling cycles per hour for at least 16 h/day, or a minimum of 224 cycles/day. Steam and water pressure were 1035 kPa (150 psi) and 895 kPa (130 psi) respectively, and water-flow rate was estimated to be 1325 L/min (350 gal/min) based on pump capacity. Water-inlet temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion in a closed-loop cooling water system constructed of austenitic stainless steel occurred during an extended lay up of the system with biologically contaminated water. The characteristics of the failure were those of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... A as the heat transfer fluid. Design conditions are based on annular fluid flow to cool the coil wall. NDE, metallographic and fractographic examinations were performed. Numerous, circumferentially oriented, OD initiating cracks were found near the crown for two coils near the non-fired end of the vaporizer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... through the tube wall, which appeared to have formed by pitting under the nodules, were revealed by visual examination. Steep sidewalls, which indicated a high rate of attack, were revealed by microscopic examination of a section through the pit which had penetrated the tube wall. The major constituent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...-cutting, a narrow band of material on each side of the cut was raised above the hardening temperature. When the torch had passed the rate of abstraction of heat from this zone by conduction into the cold mass of the rail was sufficiently rapid to amount to a quench and thus cause local hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... responsible for the crack formation. A fourth crankcase had cracked in the bore-hole of the frontal face. In this case the cause of the fracture was the low strength of a region that was caused by a bad microstructure further weakened by the bore hole. Casting defects Cooling rate Crankcases Gray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... gave rise to the conclusion that it was formed either by the sole or contributive effect of these stresses. Cooling rate Cracking (fracturing) Pipe bends St 35.29 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Metalworking-related failures An elbow of 70 mm O. D. and 10 mm wall thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Failures Hydrogen Effects All but one of the components that cracked as a result of the quenching process exhibited a sluggish phase transformation indicative of a cooling rate <50°C/s. The exception to this observation revealed a predominantly martensitic microstructure representative of a good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be fast enough to achieve desired properties but slow enough to minimize distortion Contamination Organic contamination (hydraulic fluids) Increases cooling rate during vapor phase Increases cooling rate during convection Increases tendency toward cracking and distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Metallography Both components were attacked by corrosion after the surface treatment, though in different forms. Component A, which was in a sensitized condition, underwent intergranular attack. The cooling rate of 120 °C/h (216 °F/h) after the postmachining annealing treatment was not adequate to prevent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... , were observed in the metallographic views. Of particular interest, the weld HAZ microstructure was also examined to evaluate the relative cooling rate during welding. The HAZ microstructure is shown in Fig. 4 and consists of ferrite, pearlite, and minor amounts of martensite (or perhaps bainite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... zone (HAZ) and weld hardnesses along with a wide variety of heat input and cooling rate variables. The normal dilution effects from the use of differing base metals or differing filler metal cause graduated hardenability coupled with cooling rate variations. Very often, elemental concentrations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the desired resistance to shock and wear yet retained high strength and good ductility. No further gear failures occurred. The shape of a casting can contribute to residual stresses if it entails sections of markedly different thicknesses, which can undergo different cooling rates in the mold. This effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to generate the cracks. High-temperature preheat and postheat treatments would have retarded the cooling rate and prevented the formation of martensite, but preheating and postheating were not considered practical for this application. The studs fractured under service loads as a result of intergranular crack...