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cooling curve

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature and the M s may be determined in order to construct a CCT diagram, such as the one shown for an unalloyed carbon steel (AISI 1045) in Fig. 2 . Continuous cooling transformation curves provide data on the temperatures for each phase transformation, the amount of transformation product obtained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... crystal (SX) castings. Off-axis grain boundaries in DS and SX castings significantly improve creep resistance and overall stress rupture life compared to an EQ casting. (Photo courtesy Alcoa Howmet, Whitehall, Michigan.) [ 1 ] Fig. 3 Schematic showing general creep curve shape under constant...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 8 Polarization behavior for mild steel in the absence and the presence of calcium precipitating bacteria (anodic and cathodic curve) in cooling water system More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (367 deg C) and 2935 psi (20.5 MPa), failed near the IK boxes as a result of thermal fatigue. Thermal fatigue damage was accelerated by repetitive exposure to water droplets from the soot blower and the associated rapid cooling. Boilers Electric power generation Tubes ASME SA210-A1 Thermal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., a portion of the conductor is stressed in compression beyond its elastic limit, causing permanent distortion so that, on cooling at standstill, an overall contraction occurs. If the cycle is repeated, further contraction takes place, the amount diminishing with each successive cycle until, ultimately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Glass(a) 20–60 3–9 Polypropylene(b) 9.5 1.5 Polystyrene(b) 11.1 1.7 Polymethyl methacrylate(b) 11.8 1.8 Polyvinyl chloride(b) 12.5 1.9 Polyethylene terephthalate 14.3 2.2 (a) Source: Ref 8 ; (b) Source: Ref 5 Percentage of volume decrease on cooling Table 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... + log   t f ) ,   where   T = T ( ° F ) + 460. Besides, in seam cooled pipes, the internal magnetite scale thickness may also be used as a criterion for failure analysis. The equation for scale thickness is: (Eq 2) log   X = 0.00022 ( T + 460 ) ( 20...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was studied at 4 KHz. Figure 6 demonstrates the change in eddy current response at different locations of the tube. The impedance values are plotted around the circumference of the tube, whereas, each curve has been taken along the tube axis. 28Cr3SiNiWMoV steel is a bainitic steel which during furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deformation is typically characterized by time-dependent strain curves, as discussed in more detail in the article “Creep and Stress Rupture Failures” in this Volume. Most (but not all) creep curves show three distinct stages, as briefly described in the following. Creep strength (i.e., the resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... found at the point of origin of fracture A2. The material had been heated to the melting point during the engraving of the number, and multiple cracking occurred during cooling. One of these cracks led to the development of fatigue fracture A2. Drills Engraving Stainless steel Fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the T g . After the first heating to ~230 °C (450 °F), the assembly was cooled to −20 °C (−4 °F) and reheated. The second run shows the T g as the change in slope between the two expansion regions. In the first run, the expansion rate (the slope of the expansion curve) exceeds the glassy CTE due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of crystallinity of the fracture surfaces ascertained in order to establish the ductilelbrittle transition curve for the material. The test pieces were cut axially from the plate, the notch being arranged in the approximate direction of the major cracking. Results are shown in Table 4 the curve being...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Condition 2 1,300 6.2 900 88 12.78 <1 4.5 Condition 3 1,400 6.2 900 88 12.78 <0.1 4.5 Condition 4 1,200 4.8 700 68 9.94 300 8.5 Condition 5 1,300 4.8 700 68 9.94 4 8.5 Condition 6 1,400 4.8 700 68 9.94 <0.4 8.5 Fig. 27 Stress rupture curve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... collected from IA/PA mild steel heat exchanger tube ( b ) Fig. 8 Polarization behavior for mild steel in the absence and the presence of calcium precipitating bacteria (anodic and cathodic curve) in cooling water system Fig. 1 Photographs of mild steel tubes collected from Tirumakottai...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., micrograph of a nital-etched specimen that had been austenitized 20 min at 1095 deg C (2000 deg F) and air cooled 315x, and micrograph of the same specimen after annealing 68 h at 480 deg C (900 deg F) 1000x). Investigation supported the conclusions that the chain link failed in a brittle manner, because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... nuclei is proportional to the available grain boundary area. Larger grained materials shift the nose of the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve to the right, inhibiting pearlite nucleation and promoting martensite formation. Much of the hardenability research has been performed on a moderately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-cycle superimposed loading. Adapted from Ref 3 S-N Curves and Endurance Limits The stress-life or S - N method was the first widely used approach to understand and quantify metal fatigue, and it is still widely used in design applications where the applied stress is primarily within...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... design CBED convergent-beam electron diffraction CCT continuous cooling transformation (dia- gram) CE carbon equivalent CEGB United Kingdom Central Electricity CEGB Central Electricity Generating Board CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFRP carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic cm centimeter CMOD crack-mouth...