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cooling curve

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 41 Centerline cooling curves showing the effect of scale on the cooling curves of two different steels quenched in fast oil without agitation. (a) 1095 steel; oil temperature, 50 °C (125 °F). (b) 18-8 stainless steel; oil temperature, 25 °C (75 °F). Test specimens were 13 mm (0.5 in.) diam More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 66 Comparison of cooling curves as a workpiece cools into and through the martensite transformation range for a conventional quenching and tempering process and for interrupted quenching processes. (a) Conventional quenching and tempering. (b) Marquenching. (c) Modified marquenching. Ae 1 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 67 Effect of clay coating on cooling curves of steel test specimen quenched into still water at 30 °C (86 °F). Test specimen, JIS S45C steel cylinder (10 mm, or 0.40 in., diam × 30 mm, or 1.2 in., long) More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature and the M s may be determined in order to construct a CCT diagram, such as the one shown for an unalloyed carbon steel (AISI 1045) in Fig. 2 . Continuous cooling transformation curves provide data on the temperatures for each phase transformation, the amount of transformation product obtained...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Cooling paths for (a) martempering, (b) austempering, and (c) time quenching superimposed on the isothermal transformation curve for eutectoid steel More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 77 Direct quenching from carburizing temperature. (a) Phase diagram schematic. (b) Continuous cooling transformation curve for a high-carbon surface. (c) Micrograph of direct quenched 3% Ni-Cr carburized steel. 280×. Source: Ref 30 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Development of thermal stresses within steel on cooling. T, time instant at maximum temperature difference; 0, time instant of stress reversal; curve A, stress variation at the surface under elastic conditions. B and C are actual thermal stress variations at the surface and the core under More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... To achieve such remarkable results, turbine blade engineers over the last 40 years have developed various gamma prime (γ′) strengthened, nickel-based superalloys that can be investment cast into an airfoil shape with intricate internal passages required for airfoil cooling. The earlier versions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... at 693 deg F (367 deg C) and 2935 psi (20.5 MPa), failed near the IK boxes as a result of thermal fatigue. Thermal fatigue damage was accelerated by repetitive exposure to water droplets from the soot blower and the associated rapid cooling. Boilers Electric power generation Tubes ASME SA210-A1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in service. As a result, a portion of the conductor is stressed in compression beyond its elastic limit, causing permanent distortion so that, on cooling at standstill, an overall contraction occurs. If the cycle is repeated, further contraction takes place, the amount diminishing with each successive cycle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be considered in design is its coefficient of thermal expansion. Most heat-treating problems could be solved if this coefficient could be controlled [ 1 ]. Almost all solids expand on heating and contract upon cooling. The relationship between thermal conductivity and thermal expansion is important in designing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... + log   t f ) ,   where   T = T ( ° F ) + 460. Besides, in seam cooled pipes, the internal magnetite scale thickness may also be used as a criterion for failure analysis. The equation for scale thickness is: (Eq 2) log   X = 0.00022 ( T + 460 ) ( 20...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... purposes, were found at the point of origin of fracture A2. The material had been heated to the melting point during the engraving of the number, and multiple cracking occurred during cooling. One of these cracks led to the development of fatigue fracture A2. Drills Engraving Stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deformation is typically characterized by time-dependent strain curves, as discussed in more detail in the article “Creep and Stress Rupture Failures” in this Volume. Most (but not all) creep curves show three distinct stages, as briefly described in the following. Creep strength (i.e., the resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... current between control and bacterial inoculated system. Fig. 8 Polarization behavior for mild steel in the absence and the presence of calcium precipitating bacteria (anodic and cathodic curve) in cooling water system Impedance spectroscopy analysis is presented in Fig. 9 and Table 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... steel 100x, micrograph of a nital-etched specimen that had been austenitized 20 min at 1095 deg C (2000 deg F) and air cooled 315x, and micrograph of the same specimen after annealing 68 h at 480 deg C (900 deg F) 1000x). Investigation supported the conclusions that the chain link failed in a brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of crystallinity of the fracture surfaces ascertained in order to establish the ductilelbrittle transition curve for the material. The test pieces were cut axially from the plate, the notch being arranged in the approximate direction of the major cracking. Results are shown in Table 4 the curve being...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... into a quench chamber. The syngas and slag are rapidly cooled in a water bath contained in the quench chamber which also serves to separate the syngas from the slag. The syngas exits the gasifier and flows through additional stages of scrubbers. Figure 2 shows a simplified flow diagram for the gasifier...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... nuclei is proportional to the available grain boundary area. Larger grained materials shift the nose of the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve to the right, inhibiting pearlite nucleation and promoting martensite formation. Much of the hardenability research has been performed on a moderately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Correct posttreatment An important aspect of successful heat treatment is procedure qualification and process controls to ensure proper heating and cooling of a metal during heat treatment. The furnace must be of the proper size and type, and temperatures must be controlled within the prescribed...