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convection furnace

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and material factors that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... heat of the reformed gas. The best utilization of this heat is by conducting it back to the process as a heat source for the reforming reaction. This is one of the features of a Haldor Topsøe Convection Reformer, HTCR (Haldor Topsøe A/S, Lyngby, Denmark). The carbon activity of the reformed gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A large diameter steel pipe reinforced by stiffening rings with saddle supports was subjected to thermal cycling as the system was started up, operated, and shut down. The pipe functioned as an emission control exhaust duct from a furnace and was designed originally using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of rear wall tubes which project into the furnace chamber to form the entry to the superheater and convection zones. Welded joints in these locations have been found to be particularly vulnerable. Photographs, Figs. 1 , 7 and 8 illustrate typical modes of failure of tubes of large power station...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the heating of steam in a superheater or reheater. The heat-flow path through a clean boiler tube has three components. First, fire-side heat transfer from the flame or hot flue gases is by both radiation and convection. Radiation predominates in the furnace, where the gas temperatures may be close to 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is quickly saturated and remains so during the dissolution process. In this case, the dissolution rate, j , is controlled by mass transport. Equation 1 reduces to Eq 3 : (Eq 3) j = D δ ( C sat − C ∞ ) The transport process is enhanced by convection due to density...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... radiation and convection. Radiation predominates in the furnace, where the gas temperatures may be close to 1650 °C (3000 °F). By the time the flue gas has left the furnace, it has been cooled to 925 to 1095 °C (1700 to 2000 °F), and convection is the predominant mode of heat transfer. Second, conduction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., brine, and caustic quenching Shapes Maximum carbon content, % Furnace hardening General use 0.30 Simple shapes 0.35 Very simple shapes (e.g., bars) 0.40 Induction hardening Simple shapes 0.50 Complex shapes 0.33 Higher-carbon steels undergo greater expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... industry. It has been shown that the kinetics of nitridation in N 2 are much higher than found in contact with NH 3 at high temperatures (980 to 1090 °C, or 1800 to 2000 °F) ( Ref 18 ). Heat treating furnaces and accessories for heat treating powder metal products are typically exposed to N 2 or N 2 -H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... segregation originates in alloys during the solidification stage. Such deviations from the nominal composition are due to convection currents in the liquid, gravity effects, and redistribution of the solute during the formation of dendrites. Solute rejection at the solid-liquid interface during dendrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... segregation originates in alloys during the solidification stage. Such deviations from the nominal composition are due to convection currents in the liquid, gravity effects, and redistribution of the solute during the formation of dendrites. Solute rejection at the solid-liquid interface during dendrite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2