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contour roll forming

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., i.e., from partial to total decarburization. Observations suggested the defects originated at the stages of ingot making and rolling. This was apparently the reason for complete decarburization of the area with original surface defect which opened up further in the oxidizing atmosphere of the furnace...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... confirmed that the brittle oxides that formed stringers were alumina, and the other macroinclusions were complex silicates. Both the alumina and silicate inclusions were deleterious to contact-fatigue properties. Microstructurally, the carburized regions of the broken roller and of inner-race samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... caused blade failure. Air compressors Burrs Fan blades Stress concentration Cold-rolled steel Fatigue fracture Overview of Blade Failure Fracture Surface Materials of Blade Shape of Stress Concentrating Section Fracture Crack Propagation Fatigue Crack Starting Test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for a weld flange. Fig. 4 Wrinkles form when metal flow into an area is greater than metal flow out Instead of increasing binder pressure, using draw beads or changing the blank edge contour and die entry radius are better approaches to minimizing wrinkles. Each of these approaches is feasible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to transverse cracks in that they form in the HAZ but are not open to the surface. In ferritic steels, they also are caused by high hardness, excessive restraint, and the presence of hydrogen. Their orientation follows the contour of the HAZ. Longitudinal cracks (No. 4, Fig. 3 ) may exist in three forms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as spalling, and this form of surface degradation often has its origins as subsurface fatigue damage from cyclic rolling contact. Hence, the spalling of gear teeth and bearing materials is also known as fatigue wear or rolling contact fatigue. Spalling damage on a surface can also occur from impact events...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Schematic of defects and discontinuities in welded joints Fig. 4 Weld discontinuities affecting weld shape and contour. (a) Undercut and overlap in a fillet weld. (b) Undercut and overlap in a groove weld. (c) and (d) Underfill in groove welds Fig. 5 Identification of cracks according...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1100 to 1200 °F); flame cutting may produce hard edges that are deleterious to machining and may act as stress raisers in a weldment. Nondestructive inspection of welded assemblies is highly recommended. In the fabrication of a member, the material should be oriented so that the rolling direction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of an ingot in the case of inclusions or a lamination in the steel, (2) foreign objects, such as parts of rolls or rolling equipment, being pushed into the steel during hot rolling, or (3) hot tears that form, particularly during piercing and rolling of relatively thin-wall large-diameter seamless pipe. All...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... of usual quality and no abnormal features were revealed. As seen in the photomicrograph, Figure 3 , the failure was initiated at a fatigue crack that had developed at the junction of the fillet weld with the plate, at which location a notch was present, this being formed by the contour of the weld...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Operational attributes of nonabrasive wear Table 1 Operational attributes of nonabrasive wear Attribute Variations Motion  Rolling With slip Without slip  Impact With slip Without slip  Sliding Unidirectional or reciprocating High speed or low speed Fretting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... with hardness and residual stress measurements are presented. These results suggest that the shell fractures form on the plane of maximum residual tensile stresses. The formation of the shells is aided by the presence of defects in the material in these planes of maximum residual stress. The detail fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from “A” can form a separate body, known as a wear particle. Adhesion usually starts the wear process in sliding and fretting wear. There is the potential for adhesive interaction in rolling wear, because pure rolling only occurs in a small portion of a rolling contact. Pure rolling contact typically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Supplemental Articles,” in this online Volume). Tool and Die Characteristics Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First, they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes (stamping, shearing, punching, rolling, bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Prevention , Volume 11, online edition of the ASM Handbook Archived Volumes ). Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First, they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes (stamping, shearing, punching, rolling, bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Stress-corrosion cracking occurs in wire ropes made from all materials. Stress-corrosion cracking frequently occurs in terminals that have been roll swaged on ends of wire ropes for marine use. In the following example, rolling lines from the swaging operation acted as stress raisers. Stress raisers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the component, placing the hot spot at the surface under compressive stress is beneficial. This can be achieved by surface treatments such as nitriding, carburizing (case hardening), shot peening, needling, surface rolling, and mechanical overstressing. When these treatments are properly applied, the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in form of a customer complaint and prompted a thorough investigation. The coils of 2.8 mm thickness had been processed through hot rolling and subsequently, solution annealed, shot blasted and pickled in a conventional manner to confer them with No. 1 surface finish. The coils had been subjected...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propagation in different environments. The article concludes with a discussion on rolling-contact fatigue, macropitting, micropitting, and subcase fatigue. corrosion fatigue crack growth crack initiation damage tolerance criterion fatigue fracture fatigue strength fatigue-crack propagation finite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to hydrogen attack. Original magnification: 400× Fig. 27 Close-up view of tube at failure location showing rectangular window-type rupture with thick lips Fig. 28 Photograph of failed tube sample having window-type rupture with thick lips and uneven contours Fig. 29 Close-up view...