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continuous transformation diagram

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the temperature-time dependence of the microstructure formation process for the alloy being studied. Two of the most commonly used transformation diagrams are time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams. Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams Time...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 10.1007/s11668-010-9412-1 Timing Witness Interviews Diagrams Weather Data and Video Footage Types of Explosions Explosion Damage Indicators Evaluation of Blast Damage Indicators Example Blast Damage Indicators Blast Pressure Maps Blast Damage Maps Since 1924...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It also provides information on the applications of fracture mechanics in failure analysis. crack-like imperfection elastic-plastic fracture mechanics failure analysis fracture mechanics linear elastic fracture mechanics stress analysis stress transformation subcritical fracture mechanics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and a procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Failure models continue to be enhanced for structural life prediction. Engineers realize that significant uncertainties and variations in loads, material properties, geometrical, and other parameters occur in real-world structures. A need exists to quantify the probability of failure of structural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 2, the failed vertical main bank tube, will be described here. Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of boiler showing the locations of the three failed tubes Boiler operating conditions Table 1 Boiler operating conditions Boiler rating (maximum continuous) 200 Mg/h (180 ton/h) Average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... continues, the inner austenite transforms, increasing volume and placing the surface material in tension. The resulting untampered martensite is hard and brittle, which renders the forging susceptible to cracking· because of localized stresses that exceed the tensile strength of the steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... large grain structure continuous transverse grain boundaries microstructural analysis ultimate tensile strength A202B (chromium-manganese-silicon alloy steel) Background Failure Investigation of Excess Flow Valves on Stationary Tank BLEVE of Truck-Mounted Tank Discussion of BLEVE...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... technique for the failed steady clamps, with forging temperature of 700–900 °C. A schematic diagram of the steady clamp is presented in Fig. 1 . The investigated steady clamp consisted of three components: a splint, a noumenon, and two bolts. The splint was clamped to the noumenon by bolts...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... test results. Fig. 30 Valve recession predictions using the combined impact-sliding model Fig. 31 Percentage of total valve recession caused by impact and sliding Fig. 14 Diagram of the stages of delamination caused by repeated impact on a ceramic surface. Stage 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the material, the permissible amplitude is zero. For general consideration of mean stress effects, various models of the mean-amplitude response have been proposed. One type of plot is the Haigh diagram, which plots mean stress ( S m ) versus stress amplitude ( S a ). The Haigh diagram can be a plot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the copper entrapment in the steel [ 1 ] The low melting metal/alloy diffused into base metal as greater concentration gradient existed at the interface of low melting metal/alloy and the base metal. Meanwhile, at the austenite transformation point, the austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design concepts Table 1 Methods and material characteristics for fatigue design concepts Design philosophy Design concept Material characteristics Safe-life, infinite-life Nominal stress or local stress concept S - N curve, S a = f ( N F ) Fatigue diagram, S a = f ( S...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Service time has reached some arbitrarily chosen fraction of calculated or experimental failure life. Previous failure statistics indicate high probability of failure. Frequency of repair renders continued operation uneconomical. Nondestructive inspection reveals cracking. Surface degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , Addison-Wesley , Reading, MA , 1965 3. Kraner H.M. , Phase Diagrams, Materials Science and Technology , Vol 6-II , Alper A.M. , Ed., Academic, 1970 , p 67 – 115 4. Alper A.M. , Doman R.C. , McNally R.N. , and Yeh H.C. , Phase Diagrams Materials Science...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... as indicated in the diagram Fig. 18 , the stress at which this occurs being the endurance limit . In the case of the non-ferrous metals the curve continues to fall, and it is usual to specify the endurance strength at N stress cycles, usually 50 × 10 6 . Fig. 18 It has been found as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of wear debris that occurs with the introduction of a shear component. Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of impact wear modes resulting from bodies variously moving with velocity, V . (a) Normal impact. (b) Compound impact (with motion of both bodies causing sliding on impact). (c) Compound impact...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and structural integrity ( Ref 18 ) Fig. 1 Flow diagram showing the relationship between the design phase and the investigative tasks for in-service failure, structural aging, and fitness-for-service of structural components Fig. 4 Fatigue cracking in an aircraft wing fitting for the F-111...