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continuous hot dip coatings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... alloy formation. Even in the case of steel parts with lower silicon contents the reaction between iron and zinc can continue until the pure zinc layer has been consumed entirely if the work piece is not cooled sufficiently after withdrawal. Coating defects Galvanized steels Hot dip galvanizing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the oxide coating. This heavy oxide coating and the longitudinal direction of the crack indicated that a seam was present in the bolt bar stock. Hot heading had disrupted the linear direction of the seam in the bolt-head areas so that the crack branched in a circumferential direction. Installation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of all coatings against atmospheric corrosion. Aluminum coating also gives excellent corrosion protection in seawater immersion and in high-temperature applications. Aluminum coatings are applied by hot dip methods at approximately 675 to 705 °C (1250 to 1300 °F). Aluminum alloy 1100 is usually used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Conclusion Recommendations Example 2: Analysis of a Corrosion Failure of an Aboveground Storage Tank Electroplated Coatings Hot-Dip Coatings Vapor-Deposited Coatings Thermal Spray Coatings Conversion Coatings Phosphate Conversion Coatings Chromate Conversion Coatings Aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... subjected to sinusoidal load fluctuations at 6.7 Hz in air, 3% NaCl solution, and natural sea water are described. Reinforcement types studied included: hot-rolled mild steel bar, hot-rolled alloyed high strength bar, cold-worked high strength bar, galvanized bar of all these three types, nickel-clad bar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the presence of a continuous, pore-free nickel-phosphorus coating. This coating, which as-deposited is amorphous, crystallizes at a temperature of about 320°C ( 4 ). This process produces a two phase structure of nickel and Ni 3 P which is brittle and readily cracks. On surfaces that are heated above 350°C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... been dissolved. Iron is nearly inert in air-free water and seawater, because there is limited cathodic reaction possible. If the surface of the metal is coated with paint or other nonconducting film, the rates of both anodic and cathodic reactions are greatly reduced, and corrosion will be retarded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may include plasma spraying, hot dipping, or electrophoresis. Subsequent heat treatments help develop the proper mechanical properties and trigger further diffusion within the coating. The principal protective oxide generated by the high-temperature oxidation of these aluminide intermetallics is Al 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in Fig. 12 . Fig. 11 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of weld oxide Fig. 12 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of oxide in vent pipe adjacent to bottom iron oxide trail The zinc coating is continuous over the surface of the pipe, with the exception of the weld areas where it has been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the weld toe Cracks—hot or cold, longitudinal or transverse, crater and at weld toe Gas porosity Arc strike Spatter Backing piece left on: failure to remove material placed at the root of a weld joint to support molten weld metal Subsurface features that are causes for rejection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with beach marks • Overload zone consistent with applied loading direction • Ratchet marks where origins join • Multiple brittle-appearing fissures • External surface and internal fissures contain reaction scale coatings • Fracture after limited dimensional change Scanning electron microscopy, 20–10,000...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation rate versus temperature. LTHC, low-temperature hot corrosion; HTHC, high-temperature hot corrosion. Courtesy of U.S. Navy Fig. 26 Schematic of cross section of a thermal barrier coating (TBC). Calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) deposits on the TBC surface, which upon melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature (scanning electron microscope). Optical fractography. Original magnification: 1500× Fig. 15 Crater crack in carbon steel fillet weld termination as revealed under wet fluorescent magnetic-particle testing Fig. 16 Centerline hot crack in AISI/SAE 1020 steel Fig. 17...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the steel at the time of collapse was estimated to be −1 to 4 °C (30 to 40 °F). Material: ASTM A446 grade B or F steel sheet, zinc-coated by the hot-dip process, structural quality Design Code: German: Silo code DIN 1055 E and DIN 1055 F. U.S.: Janssen theory The design and erection of smaller...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Electrical Isolation The joint between dissimilar metals can be isolated to break the electrical continuity. Use of nonmetallic inserts, washers, fittings, and coatings at the joint between the materials will provide sufficient electrical resistance to eliminate galvanic corrosion. The design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Electrical Isolation The joint between dissimilar metals can be isolated to break the electrical continuity. Use of nonmetallic inserts, washers, fittings, and coatings at the joint between the materials will provide sufficient electrical resistance to eliminate galvanic corrosion. The design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dip galvanizing bath. These failures are believed to be associated with high hardness and high residual stresses often found in welding. Penetration of molten zinc can also occur when previously galvanized parts are welded. “Copper checking” is a form of LMIE that occurs during hot working...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract The various methods of furnace, torch, induction, resistance, dip, and laser brazing are used to produce a wide range of highly reliable brazed assemblies. However, imperfections that can lead to braze failure may result if proper attention is not paid to the physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... size was reached. There are occasional anecdotal reports of steel components fracturing when immersed in a hot dip galvanizing bath. These failures are believed to be associated with high hardness and high residual stresses often induced during welding. Penetration of molten zinc can also occur...