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continuous heating transformation diagrams

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the temperature-time dependence of the microstructure formation process for the alloy being studied. Two of the most commonly used transformation diagrams are time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams. Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams Time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of damaged areas of journal. (b) Hardness plot The loss of lubricant caused the temperatures to be hot enough to heat the journal above the critical transformation temperature. Consequently, a very brittle, hard layer of martensite formed. Annex 2E, Table 2 E.1 of API 579/ASME FFS-1 ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces some of the general sources of heat treating problems with particular emphasis on problems caused by the actual heat treating process and the significant thermal and transformation stresses within a heat treated part. It addresses the design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for how this swell could precipitate a BLEVE. The first scenario is that the top portion of the tank, which is above the liquid level, becomes heated to above approximately 750 °C and transforms to austenite. The subsequent two-phase swell then fills the tank and cools the steel rapidly enough...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the copper entrapment in the steel [ 1 ] The low melting metal/alloy diffused into base metal as greater concentration gradient existed at the interface of low melting metal/alloy and the base metal. Meanwhile, at the austenite transformation point, the austenite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-life criterion gas porosity heat treatment inclusions infinite-life criterion internal bursts macropitting micropitting reversed bending rolling-contact fatigue rotational bending strengthening stress distribution subcase fatigue thermal fatigue torsional loading FATIGUE damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the carburized case, after heat treatment. When the roller was subjected to service loads, the delayed transformation of the retained austenite to martensite caused microcracks near the case-core interface. These internal microcracks nucleated a fatigue fracture that progressed around the circumference...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrofused, A-Z-S bricks, containing alumina-zirconia-silica and made especially for glass-melting furnaces. Refractory materials with high zirconia content require the use of stabilized zirconia (CaO or MgO in solid solution) to avoid cracking on heating, due to monoclinic to tetragonal transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design concepts Table 1 Methods and material characteristics for fatigue design concepts Design philosophy Design concept Material characteristics Safe-life, infinite-life Nominal stress or local stress concept S - N curve, S a = f ( N F ) Fatigue diagram, S a = f ( S...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of carbide in plain low-carbon steel is as follows. In low-carbon steel before service, the carbide is present as pearlite, which consists of alternate lamellae of iron carbide and ferrite. Following heating, the pearlite starts to spheroidize, sometimes known as divorce of pearlite, and continued heating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Failure models continue to be enhanced for structural life prediction. Engineers realize that significant uncertainties and variations in loads, material properties, geometrical, and other parameters occur in real-world structures. A need exists to quantify the probability of failure of structural...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cubic (fcc) crystal structure, and one for a body-centered cubic (bcc) material that exhibits a ductile-to-brittle transition. Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit a solid-state transformation. bcc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Wing Slat Track. Warpage during heat treatment or during stress-relief annealing is also a common type of distortion failure. Warpage can result from changes in residual stress or from thermal- or phase-transformation-induced stresses and strains that are introduced during heating or cooling. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... fracture assessments, corrosion assessments, and blast, fire, and heat damage assessments. blast assessment brittle fracture assessment corrosion assessment elevated temperature life assessment failure prevention fatigue life assessment fire assessment fitness-for-service life assessment heat...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these criteria can constitute failure. For example, a steam turbine blade whose tip has eroded affects turbine efficiency and hence affects the economics of operation adversely. The blade should therefore be replaced even though it can continue to operate. Component failures are thus defined in terms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It also provides information on the applications of fracture mechanics in failure analysis. crack-like imperfection elastic-plastic fracture mechanics failure analysis fracture mechanics linear elastic fracture mechanics stress analysis stress transformation subcritical fracture mechanics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and a procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (sylvine) 0.1 0.3 … … Na 2 SO 4 (orthorhombic form) … … … 96.6 Na 2 SO 4 (hexagonal form) … … … 2.1 Composition of vinyl gloves used in curing silicone determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Table 3 Composition of vinyl gloves used in curing silicone determined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear apparatus. Most mechanical components continue to be functional beyond the zero wear limit, and their usefulness is normally connected with the loss of a specific depth of material. The article reviews the zero impact wear model and some measurable impact wear models. It presents a case study...