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continuous flow

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... installation. Recommendations included providing water treatment to remove chlorides from the system. Continuous flow should be maintained throughout the entire tubing system to prevent concentration of chlorides. No chloride-containing water should be permitted to remain in the system during shutdown periods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Jet pumps, which have no moving parts, provide a continuous circulation path for a major portion of the core coolant flow in a boiling water reactor. Part of the pump is held in place by a beam-and-bolt assembly, wherein the beam is preloaded by the bolt. The Alloy X-750 beams...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract After two weeks of operation, a poppet used in a check valve to control fluid flow and with a maximum operating pressure of 24 MPa (3.5 ksi) failed during operation. Specifications required that the part be made of 1213 or 1215 rephosphorized and resulfurized steel. The poppet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at a velocity to create annular flow conditions in the coil. That is, the interior wall surface of the tubing is to be coated with a continuous liquid layer surrounding vaporized fluid. If annular flow conditions are not established, fluid is not available to absorb heat, causing a temperature rise...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... exposing more base material to corrosive action. An example of this type of process is the erosion-corrosion of steam turbines. Other systems may involve the dissolution of the protective oxide layer, because of a continual flow of liquid past the surface. Cavitation is also a problem where the high-speed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... There is no continuous flow within this volume and after pressurization it acts as a dead air space or thermal barrier to prevent excessive temperatures from occurring on the external surface of the dome. Cartridge combustion products can deposit between the heat shields and the chamber dome making cleaning and removal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... for carburization and grain flow to verify the extent of the problem. ARL was able to identify specific heat lots that were affected and recommended removal of these bolts from service. The properly manufactured bolts were suitable for continued use. The forging process results in a grain flow that follows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the heating of steam in a superheater or reheater. The heat-flow path through a clean boiler tube has three components. First, fire-side heat transfer from the flame or hot flue gases is by both radiation and convection. Radiation predominates in the furnace, where the gas temperatures may be close to 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the Heater Treater ruptured while the unit was operating under normal conditions where the fire tube sleeve was under continuous operations and fully exposed to gas fired flame at atmospheric pressure. Heater Treater contains two fire tubes having inner sleeves. To identify the mechanism of failure, detailed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that time span, both tank floats broke from their stems, causing water to flow continuously at full capacity into both tanks. Most of the water in each tank drained through the overflow standpipe into the main sewer. Only a relatively small amount soaked the carpeting and padding in adjacent rooms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... away by high speed gas flow, leaving a pit in the pipe surface. Unfortunately, the pit can act as carbon pockets, and it will make the metal dusting process continue. Initially, the pits dimension is small. Because of the continued attack, the pits grow bigger and bigger. In the radiation section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A type 321 stainless steel bellows expansion joint on a 17-cm (6 in.) OD inlet line (347 stainless) in a gas-turbine test facility cracked during operation. The line carried high-purity nitrogen gas at 1034 kPa (150 psi) with a flow rate of 5.4 to 8.2 kg/s (12 to 18 lb/s...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... segregation cold formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... panel contains important information not available on the finished part: The amount of metal remaining outside the beads should be the same at tooling buyoff and after thousands of production hits. Differences point to changes in metal flow. Examination of both the top and bottom panel surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of mechanical energy, which is converted into heat. The heat is carried away by a continuous through-flow of water superimposed on the recirculating flow. The water enters the working compartment through some of the holes that are visible in the stator vanes and exits through a circumferential slot between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Sliding, Diffusion-Accommodated Flow Rate Controlling) to describe superplasticity, taking into account two mechanisms: the diffusion-accommodated flow (D-A flow) consisting of GBS along with material transport through the grain boundary and bulk crystal diffusion [ 7 ] to maintain grain continuity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... local attack has taken place at butt welds in water-wall tubes, particularly those situated in zones of high heat flux. To prevent on-load corrosion an adequate flow of water must occur within the tubes in the susceptible regions of a boiler. Corrosion products and suspended matter from the pre-boiler...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in blade 28 but on the opposite, i.e., steam inlet, side of the blade and this is also shown in Fig. 1 . This crack, and the one in blade 28, both showed an unusual characteristic in starting perpendicular to the bearing face of a tooth and continuing in this direction for a short distance before turning...