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continuous cooling transformation diagrams

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the temperature-time dependence of the microstructure formation process for the alloy being studied. Two of the most commonly used transformation diagrams are time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams. Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams Time...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in heat treatment is the uneven expansion and contraction that occurs within a part because of thermal gradients during heating and cooling. In addition to thermal stresses, steels are subjected to transformation stresses when they are hardened to martensite during quenching. Some specific problem areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and other cooling effects. Other complications to fire and heat event assessment are spot fires and secondary pipe ruptures or tank collapses that create additional hot areas away from the initiating event. An experienced engineer or team of engineers involved in the explosion analysis can determine what...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for how this swell could precipitate a BLEVE. The first scenario is that the top portion of the tank, which is above the liquid level, becomes heated to above approximately 750 °C and transforms to austenite. The subsequent two-phase swell then fills the tank and cools the steel rapidly enough...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Service time has reached some arbitrarily chosen fraction of calculated or experimental failure life. Previous failure statistics indicate high probability of failure. Frequency of repair renders continued operation uneconomical. Nondestructive inspection reveals cracking. Surface degradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the copper entrapment in the steel [ 1 ] The low melting metal/alloy diffused into base metal as greater concentration gradient existed at the interface of low melting metal/alloy and the base metal. Meanwhile, at the austenite transformation point, the austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Scabs are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused by gaseous pockets in the ingot. (f) Embedded scale from excessive scaling during prior heating operations. (g) Cracks with little or no oxide present on their edges when the metal cools in the mold, setting up highly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... investigation often requires that the observed damage be put into context, which can be done empirically through knowledge of typical deterioration rates for each component type. This is particularly the case for the hot section components of the turbine, which undergo continuous material transformations during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design concepts Table 1 Methods and material characteristics for fatigue design concepts Design philosophy Design concept Material characteristics Safe-life, infinite-life Nominal stress or local stress concept S - N curve, S a = f ( N F ) Fatigue diagram, S a = f ( S...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-known example is the brittle failure of several World War II ships, which split in half while still at dockside ( Fig. 1 , Ref 2 ). The fractures originated at weld discontinuities and propagated through carbon-steel plate, which had coarse pearlite formed by furnace cooling. The existence of a coarse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Wing Slat Track. Warpage during heat treatment or during stress-relief annealing is also a common type of distortion failure. Warpage can result from changes in residual stress or from thermal- or phase-transformation-induced stresses and strains that are introduced during heating or cooling. When...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cubic (fcc) crystal structure, and one for a body-centered cubic (bcc) material that exhibits a ductile-to-brittle transition. Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit a solid-state transformation. bcc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the material, the permissible amplitude is zero. For general consideration of mean stress effects, various models of the mean-amplitude response have been proposed. One type of plot is the Haigh diagram, which plots mean stress ( S m ) versus stress amplitude ( S a ). The Haigh diagram can be a plot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the development of the engineering discipline of fracture mechanics ( Ref 3 ). Through these and other efforts, insights into the cause and prevention of failures continue to evolve. Concepts of Failure Analysis and Prevention Clearly, through the analysis of failures and the implementation of preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... transformer, similar to the one associated with the case study. The oil-filled fins are part of the cooling system for the unit. Fig. 24 One end of the manifold is bolted to the four-cycle engine. The turbocharger is attached to the other end. Fig. 25 An L-shaped bracket was bolted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Failure of a butterfly valve in a manufacturing plant cooling water system Table 1 Failure of a butterfly valve in a manufacturing plant cooling water system Item Description Indicators Cause Throttling of valve by the operator outside of the design parameters Flow gages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../s), respectively. In addition, supplemental or continuously applied energy may not be necessary to continue the brittle crack propagation once it is initiated; elastic strain energy may be sufficient. Brittleness does not necessarily imply material flaws or processing mistakes, although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-up using deoxygenated water or the continuous circulation of demineralized deoxygenated water can also be used to minimize corrosion in some equipment. Record-keeping during such periods is as important as record-keeping during operating periods. Unanticipated effects resulting from the design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., with some well-known disruptive transformations, as for silica or zirconia. Other transitions are the decomposition of mixed oxides (e.g., ZrSiO 4 → ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ), the devitrification of glassy phases, and the crystallization of high-temperature phases for amorphous or poorly crystallized ones (e.g...