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continuous cooling transformation diagram

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the temperature-time dependence of the microstructure formation process for the alloy being studied. Two of the most commonly used transformation diagrams are time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams. Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams Time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and contraction that occurs within a part because of thermal gradients during heating and cooling. In addition to thermal stresses, steels are subjected to transformation stresses when they are hardened to martensite during quenching. Some specific problem areas associated with distortion and cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... design CBED convergent-beam electron diffraction CCT continuous cooling transformation (dia- gram) CE carbon equivalent CEGB United Kingdom Central Electricity CEGB Central Electricity Generating Board CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFRP carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic cm centimeter CMOD crack-mouth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a BLEVE. The first scenario is that the top portion of the tank, which is above the liquid level, becomes heated to above approximately 750 °C and transforms to austenite. The subsequent two-phase swell then fills the tank and cools the steel rapidly enough to transform the austenite to relatively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the continuous casting ( Fig. 6 ) stage from the water-cooled copper mold is ruled out in the present investigation. If copper was entrapped in the steel during continuous casting, then cracks would have formed at the slab narrow or broad face which would further create a crack in the plate. However, no cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a process flow diagram and a piping and instrumentation diagram. Equipment drawings showing details should be gathered when affected equipment is relatively large, for example, vertical columns or towers, fired heaters, boilers, cooling waters, and so on. Some of this effort is the same as what is involved...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Service time has reached some arbitrarily chosen fraction of calculated or experimental failure life. Previous failure statistics indicate high probability of failure. Frequency of repair renders continued operation uneconomical. Nondestructive inspection reveals cracking. Surface degradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cubic (fcc) crystal structure, and one for a body-centered cubic (bcc) material that exhibits a ductile-to-brittle transition. Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit a solid-state transformation. bcc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cubic (fcc) crystal structure, and one for a body-centered cubic (bcc) material that exhibits a ductile-to-brittle transition. Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit a solid-state transformation. bcc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... investigation often requires that the observed damage be put into context, which can be done empirically through knowledge of typical deterioration rates for each component type. This is particularly the case for the hot section components of the turbine, which undergo continuous material transformations during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and the failure of the weld in service ( Ref 1 ). The first type, often identified as weld cracking, occurs near the time of welding and may be present as soon as the weld cools (usually within a day or two). Regardless of when weld cracking occurs, it results from internal stresses. Visual or nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the development of the engineering discipline of fracture mechanics ( Ref 3 ). Through these and other efforts, insights into the cause and prevention of failures continue to evolve. Concepts of Failure Analysis and Prevention Clearly, through the analysis of failures and the implementation of preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-known example is the brittle failure of several World War II ships, which split in half while still at dockside ( Fig. 1 , Ref 2 ). The fractures originated at weld discontinuities and propagated through carbon-steel plate, which had coarse pearlite formed by furnace cooling. The existence of a coarse...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are caused by splashing liquid metal in the mold. (e) Pits and blisters caused by gaseous pockets in the ingot. (f) Embedded scale from excessive scaling during prior heating operations. (g) Cracks with little or no oxide present on their edges when the metal cools in the mold, setting up highly stressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... what expectations existed among various parties is often part of the analysis. Product safety continues to improve, but expectations are also heightened. Failure Definitions In the general sense of the word, a failure is defined as an undesirable event or condition. For purposes of discussion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../s), respectively. In addition, supplemental or continuously applied energy may not be necessary to continue the brittle crack propagation once it is initiated; elastic strain energy may be sufficient. Brittleness does not necessarily imply material flaws or processing mistakes, although...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fracture. This is the familiar “shear-lip” region. The final stages of fracture thus occur principally along the shear plane, although the angle of this “shear” region changes continually with distance from the central fibrous region and is not always at 45° to the tension load axis. Examples 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... design concepts Table 1 Methods and material characteristics for fatigue design concepts Design philosophy Design concept Material characteristics Safe-life, infinite-life Nominal stress or local stress concept S - N curve, S a = f ( N F ) Fatigue diagram, S a = f ( S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was observed after 1.8 × 10 6 , cycles and complete failure did not occur until after a further 1.8 × 10 6 cycles although the load was maintained constant so that the average stress on the part that remained unbroken must have increased continuously. In other tests, carried out on large bars of mild steel...