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constant-strain testing

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of constant strain is the basis of typical stress relaxation testing, in which the relaxation modulus function can be empirically measured by testing a plastic at constant temperature, measuring the force with respect to time to maintain constant strain and fitting the data to the relaxation modulus given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... failure mechanism ( 1 , 2 ). Fig. 1 Overall View of a Failed Breech Chamber. This paper describes the results of constant extension rate tests (CERT) carried out at slow strain rates to determine the susceptibility of 4340 steel to stress corrosion cracking in an environment consisting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... shortcoming of this test is that information may not be learned if the sample does not fail during the time allotted for the testing period. Also, this testing is performed at constant strain, and the samples will stress relax over time. A much better way to determine the effect of an environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is that the shear rate, shear strain, and shear stress are constant throughout the gap. This can be beneficial when steady state flow testing is being performed. However, sometimes there can be challenges when cone and plate geometry is used with high molecular weight materials because of the geometric requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... crystallinity, the impact of the temperature on the creep strain is equivalent to the impact of the percentage of the crystallinity on the creep strain in these polymers, at a constant temperature and stress level ( Ref 3 , 4 ). Creep in Polymers Creep and Viscoelasticity Creep tests consist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... van der Waals bonds. Because these bonds can be stretched farther than metallic bonds, it is possible to have a recoverable strain in glassy polymers of 5% or more. At such large strains, it is possible for the assumptions of small-strain elasticity to break down. Any standard test procedures based...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the third stage of tertiary creep. Constant-stress tests (as opposed to constant-load tests) often do not show tertiary behavior. Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 4 Schematic stress-strain curves for a typical thermoplastic polymer tested at four temperatures and constant strain-rate; (1) low temperature and brittle behavior, (2) intermediate temperature with some ductility, (3) greater temperature (approaching glass transition temperature More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... creep. Constant-stress tests (as opposed to constant-load tests) often do not show tertiary behavior ( Fig. 4 ). Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the circumstances surrounding the failure, a fractographic evaluation to assess the cracking, and analytical testing to evaluate the material, design, manufacturing, and environmental factors. environmental stress cracking fractographic evaluation plastics MANY FRACTURE MECHANISMS exist that can lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the absolute temperature. Figure 2 provides insight into the effect of temperature on inelastic deformation accumulation. The images are of the external surface of nickel-base superalloy test specimens. Both specimens were monotonically tested to an identical inelastic strain. One specimen was tested at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of temperature and stress. The uniaxial creep test, typically performed at constant temperature and constant load, generates the following information: Deformation data: Usually presented in terms of uniaxial strain, measured over a gage length, as a function of time. This gives the creep curve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ( Ref 7 ). Figure 4 illustrates the changes in stress-strain curves for various temperatures and a constant strain-rate. Fig. 4 Schematic stress-strain curves for a typical thermoplastic polymer tested at four temperatures and constant strain-rate; (1) low temperature and brittle behavior, (2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The output may be read in terms of the mechanical strain by suitable signal conditioning. Component-Simulation Testing Life calculation for high-temperature fatigue is challenging in itself. When the complication of simultaneously varying temperature and strain is imposed, the difficulties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-hardening strength increase. Referencing the dog bone shapes in Fig. 1 , the tensile coupon has a rectangular cross section in the gage region at the beginning of the test. During the tensile test, the volume of metal in the gage region is constant but is redistributed, with an increase in length...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the weldment/pipe would fail, various tensile-type specimens were cut from the remaining material in both the field and shop welds. These specimens were subjected to constant extension rate tests (CERT) in various environments. The CERT method is basically the application of slow dynamic straining to a stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to the conditioning (although not necessarily to equilibrium) and testing of all plastics (including FRPs) and test specimen types at constant atmospheric conditions. Special atmospheres applicable to a particular test or material or simulating a particular climatic environment are not included. Thermal conditioning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the first to provide fatigue of polymers using this technique. Strain-controlled tests are often employed in fatigue of metals ( Ref 8 , 9 ) to produce a strain-life curve and, most importantly, a cyclic stress-strain curve to describe the response of these materials to variable strain amplitude...