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constant-strain testing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... 375 – 387 , ( 1979 ). 10.1520/STP38128S 4. Kim C.D. , Wilde B.E. , “A Review of the Constant Strain Rate SCC Test” , ASTM STP 665, Ugiansky G.M. and Payer J.H. , Editors, pp. 97 – 112 ( 1979 ). 5. Al-Brady F.S. , 6th International Congress on Metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during second-stage creep Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 17 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation on tempering of normalized 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are constants related to the cyclic stress-strain properties: (Eq 35) η = [ 1 + ( a b ( 1 − a b ) ) 2 ] 1 / 2 − a b ( 1 − a b ) Equations 31 to 35 are for uniform tension. Therefore, some assumptions are necessary to convert a nonuniform...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and k and n are defined by: (Eq 19) Δ ε p / 2 = k ( Δ σ / 2 ) n where Δε p is the plastic strain range, and k and n are the constants related to the cyclic stress-strain properties: (Eq 20) η = [ 1 + ( a / b ( 1 − a / b ) ) 2 ] 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... which the weldment/pipe would fail, various tensile-type specimens were cut from the remaining material in both the field and shop welds. These specimens were subjected to constant extension rate tests (CERT) in various environments. The CERT method is basically the application of slow dynamic straining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Experimental evidence indicates that metallic materials when plastically strained have a Poisson’s ratio of 0.5 and therefore deform under constant-volume conditions. An equivalent statement is that they are incompressible. Alternatively, polymerics have higher compressibility and, in many applications, should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... initial loading. The creep rate then decreases as crystallographic imperfections undergo realignment, which then leads to secondary creep. Fig. 2 Schematic tension-creep curve showing the three stages of creep Next is a region of fairly constant strain rate (second-stage, secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The analysis of the stress-strain relationships shows that there are only two independent constants. Then E , G , and ν are related by: (Eq 33) E = G 2 ( 1 + ν ) The volume change in a material is given by: (Eq 34) Δ V = ( ε x + ε y + ε z ) V = [ 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the rigid pulley wheels indicated. It should be noted that the size of the pulley used was similar to the grooved cylinder used in the dynamic tests. On this basis, the most important single recommendation was the fitting of a low inertia shock absorber, such as a heavily damped spring, at the constant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in tensile testing of the order of 10 −3 to 10 −2 per minute do not typically cause deformation twinning at room temperature, but a hammer blow will cause twinning.) When deformation twinning does occur during plastic straining, it is usually activated after prior deformation by slip (but see subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a hcp structure, just as there are differences in the stress necessary to cause cleavage. Deformation twinning does occur in materials having a bcc lattice, with twinning more likely at low temperature and elevated strain rates. (Strain rates commonly encountered in tensile testing of the order...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or philosophies of fatigue are: Design philosophy Design methodology Principal testing data description Safe-life, infinite-life Stress-life S - N Safe-life, finite-life Strain-life ε- N Damage tolerant Fracture mechanics da / dN -Δ K These methods have all contributed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... , 1971 , p 230 – 242 27. Elber W. , Mathematical Modeling of Crack Growth Interaction Effects , Fatigue Crack Growth under Spectrum Loads , STP 595, American Society for Testing and Materials , 1976 , p 157 – 171 28. Bell P.D. and Wolfman A. , Equivalent Constant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metals. K t = 1 to 5; N = 10 4 to 10 6 ; probability of failure = 50%. Source: Ref 5 Tests with constant R -ratios are characterized in the Haigh diagram by lines through the origin with the slope ( Eq 4 ): (Eq 14) S a / S m = ( 1 − R ) / ( 1 + R...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ray elastic constants of the material, variations of σ ij are the stress-tensor components, ϕ is the angle of the direction of strain measurement with respect to the frame of reference, ψ is the angle subtended by the bisector of the incident and diffracted beam, with the specimen normal, and ε ϕψ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ϕ + σ 23 sin ϕ ) sin2 ψ where ½ S 2 and S 1 are the x-ray elastic constants of the material, variations of σ ij are the stress-tensor components, φ is the angle of the direction of strain measurement with respect to the frame of reference, ψ is the angle subtended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and area reduction have been obtained. Fatigue properties including cyclic curve, strain-life and stress-life curves, and Coffin-Manson parameters have also been acquired. Fractography of the fractures/failed test sample’s surfaces, examination of the microstructure of the electroformed nickel tool...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to that delivered by a man. If the impacts were not similar, then there would be some question concerning the relevance of the results of the tests to the in-the-field use of the tools. To calibrate the HIT, the struck end of a drift pin was instrumented with strain gages. Various trackmen and laboratory employees...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Depending on the level of constraint and fracture toughness when fracture initiates, the stored elastic strain energy may or may not be sufficient to drive the crack completely across the specimen. A common situation in laboratory testing is that the crack “pops in” the specimen; that is, a small crack...