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constant-load creep curves

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to be the reciprocal of the MPC Omega parameter: (Eq 16) ε MG = 1 Ω Figure 5 is a schematic uniaxial constant-load creep curve showing the Monkman-Grant strain and its relationship with the Omega parameter. The Monkman-Grant strain is a very useful concept, particularly where ductility exhaustion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 17 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation on tempering of normalized 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during second-stage creep Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by Figure 3 , which shows microcavities in triple points. Failure took place when this damage developed in the third creep phase, after the constant strain dε/dt phase ended ( 2 ). Fig. 2 10CrMo9-10 steel, morphology of the fracture. Fig. 3 10CrMo9-10 steel, microcavities in triple points...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... initial loading. The creep rate then decreases as crystallographic imperfections undergo realignment, which then leads to secondary creep. Fig. 2 Schematic tension-creep curve showing the three stages of creep Next is a region of fairly constant strain rate (second-stage, secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as jet engines, land-based turbines for power generation, and pressure vessels. For example, during straight and level flight, aircraft jet engines have essentially constant temperatures and imposed loads, where steady-state creep (and the environment) are the primary damage mechanisms. During...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stresses, the stress ratio R becomes a positive number between 0 and 1. A stress ratio R = 1 indicates no variation in stress, which corresponds with static loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... such as available material property data, cyclic stress/strain magnitude, critical flaw sizes, consequence of failure, and the location of damage, one of these three fatigue approaches may be warranted or preferred over the others. Fatigue Damage Progression Fatigue Loading Definitions S-N Curves...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of plastics under constant load, isothermal temperature, and a given environment can be illustrated as ductile creep behavior ( Fig. 2 ) or as brittle creep behavior ( Fig. 3 ). At very low stress levels, both types of plastics exhibit similar first- and second-stage creep deformation. The onset of creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to specimen fracture. For actual turbine blades, creep strain will manifest itself as plastic deformation in the radial direction along the airfoil, which is the principal stress direction during operation. Fig. 3 Schematic showing general creep curve shape under constant stress condition. Note...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... chamber and loads which record the punching force. The Instron cross head speed was kept constant at 0.02mm/sec. The specimens were punched until a 10% or greater decrease occurred in the peak load. The area under the load/deflection curve was assessed to estimate the energy which is called the small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that indicate the dynamics of a fracture event (quasi-static versus dynamic/impact loading) In this article, the basic types of fracture processes (ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep) are described briefly, principally in terms of fracture appearances (as sometimes affected by the microstructure). More...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that damage location was confined only to the curved tubes at entrances of retractable soot blowers. In general, at high temperature, application of a constant load to a metal component produces continuous deformation or creep, which will eventually lead to fracture if the load is maintained for a sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) Flutes on transgranular fracture surface Indicates corrosive environment and ductile fracture Crack propagates parallel to flutes Striated or ridged fracture Cyclic loading fatigue striations; Constant spacing, constant stress amplitude; variable spacing, variable stress amplitude...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the specific metal and wear is not serious. Stress produced at elevated temperature produces a condition of continuous strain called creep. By definition, creep is deformation as a function of time at constant load or stress. Creep, after a period of time, may terminate in stress-rupture fracture, also known...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature produces a condition of continuous strain called creep. By definition, creep is deformation as a function of time at constant load or stress. Creep, after a period of time, may terminate in stress-rupture fracture, also known as creep rupture. Most brittle fractures of steels occur because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in.) of water at room temperature based on full-speed fan operation with two stacks plugged or all furnace doors closed. The duct was to be assumed to operate half full of dust and was to meet ASA standards for wind, snow, and seismic loading. Original Design The duct was originally designed using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... phenomenological and, as proposed, could be applied to either failure by yield or failure by fracture. They have also been applied to cyclic loading. In practice, the Tresca and von Mises criteria are most often used today (2020) to predict yield in isotropic constant-volume materials. The Rankine model...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... applied to cyclic loading. In practice, the Tresca and von Mises criteria are most often used today to predict yield in isotropic constant-volume materials. The Rankine model is not often used because of its inability to predict behavior when one principal stress is negative and another positive. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cycle is a complex interaction between creep and low-cycle fatigue. The complexity of deformation under creep-fatigue conditions requires the use of modeling techniques for understanding/estimating the fatigue life of solder joints. Impact loading has a likelihood of triggering brittle failure...