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constant-amplitude stress cycling

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The constant-amplitude spin-pit simulation tests, on the other hand, suggest that the average SII is on the order of 6500 cycles if the crack is assumed to propagate from 4 to 10 mm (0. 16 to 0.4 in.) in length (compare with Fig. 15 ). The higher SII value, calculated on the basis of spin-pit tests, is also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... curve, operation at a constant stress amplitude S , will produce complete damage in N cycles. Operation at a stress amplitude of S for a shorter number of cycles will produce a smaller fraction of damage. Operation over a spectrum of levels, as is the case for the compressor start/stop test, results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... amplitude is constant (i.e., Q * = μ × P ), whereas the (δ − Q ) fretting hysteresis displays a large dissipative open quadratic loop shape. Stabilized gross slip conditions not only favor surface wear by debris formation and debris ejection but also decrease the cracking risk by removing the incipient...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the typical reddish-brown oxide, increased in width, with the outer radius remaining constant. This situation has been investigated using a linear vibratory motion ( Ref 19 ), where it was found that the annulus of damage for a fixed amplitude increased in width with the number of fretting cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loading. The S - N curve is the basis for fatigue design and shows the relationship between a constant stress amplitude, S a (or stress range, Δ S ), and the number of cycles to failure, N . The regions of the curve can be separated into the quasi-static, finite-life, and infinite-life regimes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of crack growth or fatigue analysis demand that a spectrum be input as a series of whole cycles where a cycle consists of a maximum stress, minimum stress, and maximum stress. Thus, a whole cycle is defined as a load excursion with constant mean stress across it. The block-type spectrum consists...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... − S min . The stress amplitude, S a , is one-half the range of stress, S a = S r /2 = ( S max − S min )/2. During a fatigue test, the stress cycle is usually maintained constant, so that the applied stress conditions can be written S m ± S a , where S m is the static or mean stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is the ratio of the power to the speed. The cyclic torque produces a cyclic stress, and the amplitude of the stress cycle is generally controlled by the universal joint angle.[ 2 ] The ratio of the output speed, ω 2 , of a universal joint to the inputspeed, ω 1 , is: (Eq 1) ω 2 ω 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This alteration is often termed work hardening [ 7 ]. Fig. 10 The result of hardness test In general, both multiple origins and secondary cracking suggest low cycle fatigue at high stresses. However, the large fatigue zone, small overload zone and rather constant striation spacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ), suggesting that the fatigue crack growth occurred under constant-amplitude loading. The orientation of the striations confirmed that the direction of crack growth was as stated above. Microscopic examination of the suspected initiation sites did not uncover corrosion pits or other anomalous initiating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... intensity factor. For many materials over a considerable range of crack growth rates this function takes the form ( 5 ): (Eq 1) da / dn = A ( Δ K ) n where a = crack depth, N = number = of load cycles, A and n are experimentally determined constants, and ΔK is the stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is defined as the total stress range the material experiences during cyclic loading, and N is defined as the number of cycles to failure. Consider the simple case of constant amplitude cyclic loading ( Fig. 16 ) ( Ref 40 ). The peak-to-peak difference in the maximum and minimum stress is defined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... between the maximum and minimum values) is called the stress amplitude, σ a , in the loading cycle. Fig. 1 Extrusion loading cycles So far, numerous studies have been performed for the improvement of tool fatigue life. Tong et al. [ 4 ] have used S-N approach and finite element analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with a Wöhler diagram or S - N curve, where S is defined as the total stress range the material experiences during cyclic loading, and N is defined as the number of cycles to failure. Consider the simple case of constant-amplitude cyclic loading ( Fig. 16 ) ( Ref 50 ). The peak-to-peak difference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... An investigation of cracking at a second PWR and subsequent constant-extension-rate testing led to the conclusion that although the cracking was considered to be caused by a low-cycle corrosion fatigue phenomenon, the A302 material was also susceptible to transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in the PAT...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The loading is purely thermal and is applied as a temperature profile over time. The thermal cycle consists of a change in temperature from room temperature to 240 °C in 40 s, constant temperature at 240 °C for next 85 s, followed by a sudden decrease of 210 °C in 40 s. Convection was considered as the major...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the “actuate” observed fracture. Fig. 2 Finite element stress analysis model of the adsorber dome. Fig. 3 Values of constant C for different loading conditions (Fig. 14 of BS PD 6493 ( 2 )). A second approach to estimate critical flaw size made use of the limited fracture surface itself...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... uniform tensile loading, in the absence of other factors, the stress-intensity factor is constant along the front of a surface crack with approximately semicircular shape. Consequently, a crack that initiates from a surface point origin in homogeneous material under uniform tension tends to grow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-intensity factor is constant along the front of a surface crack with approximately semicircular shape. Consequently, a crack that initiates from a surface point origin in homogeneous material under uniform tension tends to grow with a nearly semicircular crack front. In contrast, under bending, a surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of fatigue fracture can be predicted according to the Basquin’s power law [ 12 ], which was developed based on the stress-life test data. This power law is given by: (5) A = σ R N R B where σ R is the cyclic stress, N R is the lifetime of fatigue failure, and the constants...