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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract After less than 30 days in service, several cadmium-plated retaining rings, made of 4140 steel tubing and heat treated to 36 to 40 HRC, broke during operation that included holding components of a segmented fitting in place under a constant load. Photographic and 100x nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... flight conditions was the major cause of failure. Recommendations emphasized the need for a suitable shock absorber to be fitted at the constant-tensioning device of the winch system. Military applications Military planes Shock loading Fe-0.8C (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 17 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation on tempering of normalized 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during second-stage creep Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... as permanent inelastic deformation over time under constant load. When designing for creep, the primary objective of the engineer is to ensure that the components operating in the creep range will sustain the life required of them. To that effect, it is necessary to define what constitutes end of life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... subsequently tested fasteners were installed in fixtures in which a constant load equivalent to 90% of the rated ultimate tensile strength could be maintained on the specimens. Stress-rupture testing was performed on lever-arm-type creep machines. Testing of any lot of pins was suspended when one pin failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... through the application of a constant load to the line. This is achieved by moving a wire rope around the pulley in a 1:5 ratio and attaching the rope to the contact wire and a counterweight ( Fig. 1 ). This arrangement allows the weight to move, thus absorbing/compensating for length variations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that damage location was confined only to the curved tubes at entrances of retractable soot blowers. In general, at high temperature, application of a constant load to a metal component produces continuous deformation or creep, which will eventually lead to fracture if the load is maintained for a sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and are comparatively more expensive. Equation 1 was described in the context of a shaft that was carrying a constant downward load. It could also apply to a weightless shaft that is out of balance. In this case, the contact is restricted to one location on the shaft, but rotates on the inner surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for hatch cover failure( example 3 ) Fig. 15 Barge hatch cover ( example 3 ) Fig. 1 Constant-amplitude loading cycle Fig. 2 S-N curve for unnotched 2024-T4 aluminum alloy bar. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 3 Variable-amplitude loading data. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the failed sensor body. The testing was performed in accordance with ASTM D 1238 — Procedure B using a test temperature of 343 °C and a constant load of 2.16 kg. The samples were dried to a moisture content below 500 ppm prior to the analysis. The testing indicated that the molding resin had a melt flow rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in wide temperature swings and stresses in the tube wall, eventually causing thermal fatigue cracks. The package boilers were used in two similar plants to generate process steam where they operate at relatively constant load. One of the boilers, designated boiler 1, had been in operation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) Accordingly, stops made by both manufactures were exposed to a constant load within a saline bath overnight. The stops heat treated to the specified level exhibited intergranular cracking consistent with that fractured in service, while the lower-strength stops did not crack. Further, a new cable stop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specimen. (b) At right angles to the axis of the lower specimen Fig. 25 Normalized evolution of the energy wear rate of a Ti-6Al-4V interface as a function of contact size (keeping constant all of the other fretting wear loading parameters). Adapted from Ref 73 . Reprinted with permission from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Tensile Properties Analytical Experimental Fracture Mechanics Predictions Spin-pit simulation tests were conducted on fully bladed disks in vacuum. Details of the spin-pit test apparatus are given in Ref 6 . Two loading sequences (constant amplitude and variable amplitude) were used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... phenomenological and, as proposed, could be applied to either failure by yield or failure by fracture. They have also been applied to cyclic loading. In practice, the Tresca and von Mises criteria are most often used today (2020) to predict yield in isotropic constant-volume materials. The Rankine model...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with an estimation of stresses in each application to bound the problem and determine the suitability of ASB for particular union nut applications, and the likelihood of EAC observation. Materials Rising Step Load Tests Rising Step Load Tests Constant Displacement Testing Union Nut Stress Intensity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... 2 Inelastic damage (in the form of slip) manifesting on the surface of a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy after an identical monotonic load was applied at (a) 25 °C (75 °F) and (b) 650 °C (1200 °F). Source: Ref 3 Fig. 4 Cross section of a nickel-base superalloy after...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... applied to cyclic loading. In practice, the Tresca and von Mises criteria are most often used today to predict yield in isotropic constant-volume materials. The Rankine model is not often used because of its inability to predict behavior when one principal stress is negative and another positive. When...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... being in use in the same process as the rolls. Short term, constant load creep-rupture testing was performed on samples from these heats. The results of these tests, plotted on the as-cast alloy Larson-Miller plot are shown in Figure 7 . Nitrogen pickup for the samples used in these tests...