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compound zone formation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... intermetallic compounds found in the aluminum-iron phase diagram. Similar compositional variations were noted at the aluminum/brass interface. It was concluded that the failure of the electrical junction due to extreme heating was related to the formation of intermetallic compounds at the current carrying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). Influences on Wear The largest influences on normal and compound impact wear failures are contact stress ( Ref 9 ) and sliding velocity ( Ref 8 ). The magnitude of both directly affects the formation of the subsurface zones in the impacting bodies. At low impact stresses, there is some evidence of local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... In bodies subjected to repetitive impulse loading, characteristic subsurface zones have been observed for a large variety of materials under various test conditions (with both normal and compound impact) ( Ref 7 ). In general, three subsurface regions can be seen, as shown schematically in Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Visual Examination of General Physical Features Three blades were examined. Half of one failed blade is shown in Fig. 1 . A large number of pits were observed on the pressure side zone of each blade. Liquid penetrant inspection did not reveal the presence of cracks. None of the blades exhibited...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., ceria, zirconia, and/or niobia improve the scale adhesion and scale resilience to cyclic oxidation ( Ref 5 ). Carburization Carburization is the formation of carbide corrosion products on exposure to temperatures above approximately 760 °C (1400 °F) in gases containing methane, carbon monoxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... no cracks were found when the welds were visually inspected, X-ray radiography showed small discontinuous surface cracks adjacent to the weld bead in the heat affected zone. Further investigation, including optical microscopy, microhardness testing, and residual stress measurements, revealed that the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tubes and (b) general air flow and formation of dead zone at the rear end The Analysis Visual Inspection The corroded tubes in as-received condition are shown in Fig. 3 . It was observed during the plant visit that the severe corrosion of the tubes was localized to only some regions (front...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... multiple sites. The fracture-surface examination suggests that the crazing process proceeds with crack arrests during the intermittent craze-zone fibril formation and fracture ( Ref 65 ). The images also show crack-arrest markings on the fracture surface, which indicate that the crack growth at this stage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by fuel and/or ash compounds of Na, V, S, and Cl. Vanadium and sulfur are present in the coal or fuel oil burned in different applications. In some situations, these impurities may be ingested from the service environment, for instance, in the case of NaCl contamination from marine atmospheres...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-colored oxidized surface region was observed adjacent to the circumferential butt weld joining the two cylinders. This led to the concern that oxygen was introduced into the part during the welding procedure and caused alpha case formation of the surface of the titanium which could lead to detrimental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... process that could be either a dry or a wet process. Talc Talc is commonly used as a surface-dusting material to prevent rubber compounds from sticking together. It is a naturally occurring mineral deposit of either hydrated magnesium calcium silicate or hydrated magnesium silicate. The median...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... without using coolant. The cut surface was nickel plated for edge preservation. Figure 1(a) shows a light-etching surface zone extending to a depth of approximately 0.22 mm (0.009 in.), with a hardness of approximately 62.5 HRC. Beneath the light-etching surface zone is a region that was softer (53...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 50× (fracture surface) • Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads • Dull, fibrous fracture • Shear lips • Little or no distortion • Flat fracture • Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy • Rays or chevrons point to origin • Flat progressive zone with beach marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... The scale on the internal surface of carbon and low-alloy steel tubes such as T11 and T22 steels consists of FeO (wustite), Fe 2 O 3 (hematite), and Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite). In the presence of moisture or water in the form of condensate, there can also be formation of the compound Fe(OH) 2 (ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the dense-zone magnesia formation theory); how nonoxide refractories (and nonoxide structural ceramics) without exception are subject to high-temperature oxidation; and finally, how, in the presence of alkalis, refractory chromites (Cr 3+ ) can be oxidized in part to toxic chromates (Cr 6+ ). The alkali...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., a condition known as “sensitised” Since this compound contains about 90% chromium, its formation leads to a depletion in the level of the chromium content in the material adjacent to the grain boundaries below that required to maintain passivity, to the detriment of its corrosion resistance. In corrosive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and of the complexities involved in being able to properly characterize it. Plastics production uses a recipe of numerous compounds that make up the final product. The base material is the polymer, essentially many long molecules tightly entangled together to form a viscoelastic structure. Polymer molecules...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in direction consistent with applied loads• Dull, fibrous fracture• Shear lips • Little or no distortion• Flat fracture• Bright or coarse texture, crystalline, grainy• Rays or chevrons point to origin • Flat progressive zone with beach marks• Overload zone consistent with applied loading direction• Ratchet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... with a carbide compound, providing it with a heat-resistant material where temperatures are extremely high. Second, pistons could be of an aluminum-graphite or aluminum-boron composite, eliminating surface melting because pure aluminum has a melting point 200 F higher than the interdendritic material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... without inducing any deformation which might affect detectability. Solvent-based visible dye penetrant was utilized. Metallography Microstructual Analysis In general, precipitates were observed in significantly varying distributions and morphologies. Both pipe and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ...