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composite-toughening methods

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of a stress concentration. Extrinsic mechanisms are more prevalent in polymer composites in which particles or fibers can bridge an advancing crack ( Ref 5 , 14 , 15 , 22 , 25 , 27 , 35 , 49 , 53 ). Extrinsic toughening schemes are notable in rubber-toughened systems ( Ref 14 , 15 ) and fiber...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... quantified by correcting for atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence (the ZAF method). The composition of the hammerhead is listed in Table 1 . It is within the range specified by the American National Standards Institute ( Ref 1 ). Composition is consistent with an aluminum-deoxidized, plain high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...—approximately a few nanometers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used for the chemical surface analysis of polymers to study the chemical composition. The term surface analysis is traditionally used for surface chemical analysis techniques performed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and XPS, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as HRC 56–60 and HRC 30–45. The cracked gear and the gear-shaft were interference-fitted. The shaft bore and the oil-pressed hole of gear are required to be surface-coated to prevent carburizing. Fig. 1 Cracked gear and gear-shaft assembled (offered by manufacturer) Experiments and Methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... properties of plastics in torsion D5379 … Standard test method for shear properties of composite materials by the V-notched beam method D6272 Similar to ISO 14125 Flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials by four-point bending Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to fracture (glassy polymers). This article provides an overview of historical development of fracture behavior in polymers. It discusses the processes involved in three fracture test methods for polymers, namely linear elastic fracture mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, and post-yield fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article reviews the impact response of plastic components and the various methods used to evaluate it.. It describes the effects of loading rate on polymer deformation and the influence of temperature and strain rate on failure mode. It discusses the advantages and limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... approximation was used to analyze cracks generated by both spheres and flat punches ( Ref 12 ). Circular crack initiation and propagation was fully analyzed using a numerical calculation method ( Ref 16 ). A finite-element method was used. It was found that the mode II stress-intensity factor was about one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polyvinyl chloride pipes Automotive lenses Handheld devices Architectural and multilayer glazing Lately, ESC failures have become increasingly prevalent in the medical device industry due to the changes in cleaning methods and aggressiveness of new disinfection solutions. While certain ESC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the functional group absorptions with reference spectra provides a means to determine the chemical composition. These spectroscopic methods are capable of characterizing the cure reaction with good precision and sensitivity by measuring the change in specific absorptions from the liquid state through gelation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials and chemicals. The two most important criteria when selecting a test method are the availability of a standard test method and the ability of the test method to produce consistent and reliable engineering data for a range of service conditions. When planning a test strategy consider criteria...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... behavior of injection-molded, short-glass-fiber thermoplastic composites was also studied ( Ref 72 – 75 ). Fiber orientation in reinforced short-fiber composites depends on various factors, including fiber aspect ratio (fiber length/fiber diameter), part geometry, part thickness, and processing method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is also a recognized method for measuring T g ( Ref 24 ). Another method of assessing T g of composite materials by modulus measurement is used in the aerospace industry. A number of specimens of a size suitable for measuring flexural modulus are placed in a humidity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ranges of key properties are compared for general categories of materials (such as metal, plastics, ceramic, or composites). For example, general comparisons of some common properties are given in Table 1 ( Ref 2 ) for metals, ceramics, and polymers. The precision of property data needed during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... uncoiling while under stress and then recoiling when the stress is released. In addition, the stress can cause the rotation of chain molecules to accommodate the deformation. Uniaxial tensile loading is the simplest method used to determine the tensile properties of materials and the forces required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., is advantageous in such processes as blow molding or vacuum forming. The toughness of a polymer can be increased by adding rubbery particles as a second noncontinuous phase. Such particles disrupt crack propagation. Butadiene has this effect in toughened polystyrene and ABS. Some thermoplastics have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the environment in which the specific part is used and the application of paints and other types of protective coatings are two common methods used to control uniform corrosion. Modification of the environment by changing its composition, concentration, pH, and temperature or by adding an inhibitor is also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... This includes material composition, heat treatment, surface preparation (mill scale, coatings, surface finish, etc.), environmental composition (trace contaminants, dissolved gases, etc.), temperature, flow rate, solution concentration, and degree of agitation or aeration. In addition, corrosion product films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of this phenomenon have been exploited commercially in the development of toughened polymers. Because crazes have a different refractive index and because they reflect light, they are easily visible, especially when viewed at the correct angle with the aid of a directed light source, such as a fiber-optic...