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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the temperature range 1050–1200 °C as the enriched phase becomes liquid over 1090 °C. In order to decrease the cracks ratio, it is necessary to strictly control the heating temperature during bending. The effect of copper from chemical composition is debatable as cracks are formed randomly at the extrados...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... interlaminar reflections that occur between the front- and back-surface echoes. The evaluation of these interlaminar reflections and their relationship to specific types of material discontinuities form the basis of quantitative ultrasonic NDE. Fig. 8 Ultrasonic A-scan of a composite material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in Table 1 . Composition of weld metal Table 1 Composition of weld metal Element Composition, % Section 1, near weld metal surface Section 2, near weld metal surface Proprietary Filler Metal Iron 52 40 1.0 Nickel 35 44 72.0 Chromium 9 11 20.0 Niobium 2 2 2.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... are shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Regimes of high-temperature attack; temperatures are approximate [ 1 ] Various parameters may affect the development of these two forms, including alloy composition, thermomechanical conditions, gas composition and velocity, contaminants, gas and metal temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., this scale is composed primarily of the spinel phase with limited Cr 2 O 3 distributed at the front. The outer layer is predominantly composed of hematite and magnetite formed by the outward diffusion of Fe 2+/3+ . Figure 2c presents the EDS results for oxidation composition near the matrix. The oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... presumed. Spectroscope examination showed this particular composition (Fe-23Cr-18Ni-1.8Mo-1.2Si) did not conform to a standard specification and is apparently a proprietary alloy. It was evident that the particular mode of failure was related to the inherent structure of the material. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A slide and the two guideways of a pump had to be disassembled already during run-in time after approximately 20 h because they had galled completely, before the rated speed of 800 rpm was reached. Chemical analysis of the slide showed the following composition: 3.60C, 3.22Graphite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and mechanical property testing. This provided critical information and revealed that improper coking and decoking had removed the protective oxide layer (Cr 2 O 3 ) that normally prevents coke deposits from forming on exposed surfaces. Without this layer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... it to iron sponge at process temperature. The plant can make 1.000.000 tons of iron sponge per year. Reductor gases contain CO and H 2 and some amounts of CO 2 and H 2 O. This composition is obtained by mixing of reformer gas (fresh gas from reformer) with recycle gas. The CO 2 content of recycle gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A cold-formed Grade TP 304 stainless steel swaged region of a reheater tube in service for about 8000 hours cracked because of sulfur-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracking initiated from the external surface and a high sulfur content was detected in the outer diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a caustic solution (NaOH) to remove HCl from the stream, before the latter was directed to a burner. Metallographic examination showed that the cracks were intergranular and were frequently branched. Although nominal chemical composition of the component was found within the specified range, energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The fourth was severely hammered. It was concluded that the high temperatures developed in this engine created an environment too severe for 357 aluminum. Surfaces were so hot that the low-melting constituent melted. Then, the alloy oxidized rapidly to form Al2O3, an abrasive which further aggravated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are protected to varying degrees by an oxide layer. Oxidation of most metals and alloys from air or steam occurs by forming an oxide scale along the metal surface, which grows and becomes thicker with time. The gas composition influences the rate of oxidation. Materials frequently undergo changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to effect a seal. The pipelike, incomplete threads produced high hoop stresses when torqued down over a fully formed thread. The one connector tested for chemical composition was not made of 2024 aluminum alloy as reported but of 2017 aluminum. Hardness and conductivity data on both connectors were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... molecules that extended out of the samples showing fibers. In order to reduce the wear rate and utilize the excellent low friction property of PTFE, this polymer has often been used with fillers to form composites. PTFE itself has also been used as a filler for other polymeric systems such as PE. Figure 12...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of turbines, that is, on the combustors, blades, and vanes. Experience has shown that substrate compositional requirements for improved high-temperature strength are not compatible with the requirements for optimal high-temperature environmental protection. Increasing the operating temperatures causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... hydrocarbons such as ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), and butane (C 4 H 12 ) to the point where they crack and recombine to form predominantly unsaturated ethylene (C 2 H 4 ). Dimethyl disulfide (CH 3 -S 2 -CH 3 ) and dilution steam are added to the feed in order to reduce coke formation on the internal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Streaks of ferrite were observed by metallographic examination. It was concluded that cracking of the top of the fire-extinguisher case was the result of ferrite streaks formed due to metal overheating. The temperature of the metal was recommended to be controlled so that the spinning operation is done...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Aluminum alloy BS.1476-HE.15 by virtue of its high strength and low density finds application in the form of bars or sections for cranes, bridges, and other such structures where a reduction in dead weight load and inertia stresses is advantageous. Bars and sections in H.15 alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Persistent leakage was experienced from copper tube heaters which formed part of dairy equipment. Metallurgical examination of the brazed joints showed them to have suffered a preferential corrosion attack. This resulted in the phosphide phase of the brazing alloy being corroded away...