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compacted cast iron

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... some of the common defects in each category. The following sections reference the terminology introduced in Table 1 . Failures Related to Gray Iron Castings The cast iron family consists of several different alloys, including gray iron, ductile iron, malleable iron, white iron, compacted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can promote wear. The increased use of a type of cast iron known as compacted graphite iron (CGI) often results from this conundrum, because it can offer increased strength, when compared to aluminum alloys, and reduced weight, when compared to other cast irons. Although denser than aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wheel covered with a copious amount of magnetite particles originating from the tribo-oxidative wear of the brake system and, in particular, of the cast iron rotor. Figure 3(b) shows the worn surface of a cast iron tribological specimen, with compacted gray scales mainly made of iron oxides ( Ref 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... be considered similar in their effect on ductility to the graphite flakes in gray cast iron. The cause of the embrittlement, then, is not so much the absorption of hydrogen as the formation of the crack-like voids. Evidence will be given later to support the postulate that these voids are formed because...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the weld joining a crossbrace to the edge of the A517 grade H flange. The outer portion of this crack (∼3mm, or 1 8 in., deep by 32mm or 1 1 4 in., wide) was covered with a monolithic, smooth black film that tightly adhered to the underlying steel. The black layer was judged to be iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Source: Ref 30 There is also a particle size distribution in high-strength, age-hardening aluminum alloys, but different behavior in an aluminum casting alloy has been reported ( Ref 31 ). The iron- and/or silicon-rich phases are the inclusions that are smaller than other phases created...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... distribution in high-strength age-hardening aluminum alloys, but different behavior in an aluminum casting alloy has been reported ( Ref 31 ). The iron- and/or silicon-rich phases are the inclusions that are smaller than other phases created by solute additions for age-hardening response. In this case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (distortion) of the stainless steel piping and further crack penetration into the piping wall. The cracks continued to propagate during service from stresses induced in the piping. In another case, a transfer line carrying 73% sodium hydroxide developed a leak at a weld joining a cast Monel coupling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such environments are oxidizing. Increasing iron in the alloy increases its susceptibility to nitridation attack. Titanium and aluminum are also detrimental to nitridation attack ( Ref 18 ). Carbon-Nitrogen Interaction This type of high-temperature interaction can be found in centrifugally cast furnace tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... critical temperature (Ac 3 ). If, however, the tube temperature was high enough to transform the iron in the steel from ferrite to austenite, there is no noticeable “necking down,” or reduction, in wall thickness of the fracture edges. There is still metal elongation and tube swelling, so that measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... applications of copper alloys. Severe wear and severe corrosion condition: In this case, resistance to both corrosion and wear is required. High-chromium cast iron containing higher concentrations of chromium, such as ASTM A532 class IIIA, could be a good choice to resist corrosive wear involving severe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... A detailed heat-exchanger type classification includes different criteria, such as the transfer process (e.g., indirect and direct contact types), number of fluids (e.g., multifluid types), surface compactness (e.g., compact or noncompact), construction (e.g., tubular, plate type, extended surface type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to isolate the variables. In some instances, ultrasonic testing has proved to be a useful tool in failure analysis, particularly in the investigation of large castings and forgings. Cracks, laminations, shrinkage cavities, bursts, flakes, pores, disbonds, and other discontinuities that produce reflective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... steel piping and further crack penetration into the piping wall. The cracks continued to propagate during service from stresses induced in the piping. In another case, a transfer line carrying 73% sodium hydroxide developed a leak at a weld joining a cast alloy 400 coupling to wrought alloy 400 pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., others are cast. North American railroads use primarily “single” wear wheels. However, the wheels are reprofiled when the wheelsets are reconditioned. The reduced tread thickness increases the Hertzian subsurface stress state, should inclusions be present. Inclusions that are innocuous when the wheel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for various classifications of wire rope Rope classification Allowable pressures on sheaves made of: Cast iron Cast steel 11-13Mn steel MPa psi MPa psi MPa psi 6 × 7 2.1 300 3.8 550 10.3 1500 6 × 19 3.4 500 6.2 900 17.2 2500 6 × 37 4.1 600 7.4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... service-run cast IN-738 nickel-base superalloy gas turbine blades ( Fig. 1 ). Fractographic examination of a fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an intergranular crack surface at the trailing edge ( Fig. 2 ). Comparison with images in an atlas of fracture features taken from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... classifications of wire rope<xref rid="n0010060" ref-type="table-fn">(a)</xref> Table 2 Allowable pressures on sheaves of three materials for various classifications of wire rope (a) Rope classification Allowable pressures on sheaves made of: Cast iron Cast steel 11-13Mn steel Mpa psi Mpa...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; and loose bearings may cause excessive end play and more bending. Gear Materials A variety of cast irons, powder-metallurgy materials, nonferrous alloys, and nonmetallic materials are used in gears, but steels, because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and relatively low cost, are the most...