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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., the color near the key changed from yellow to red-brown. The gate was made from leaded red brass (85-5-5-5) while the spindle was made from silicon brass. It was concluded that the valves failed by dezincification resulting from bimetallic galvanic corrosion. It is common in the valve industry to use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., as was the presence of an adherent deposit (1.5 to 2.5 mm, or 0.06 to 0.098 in., thick) on the adjacent cathode. The nickel anode surface showed the presence of interference colors, and the rubber gasket separating the nickel anode from the cover plate ( Fig. 1 ) was charred. Fig. 2 Anode assembly and corroded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the check valve had a reddish color, indicating that the chloride-containing compound reacted with the anodized, dichromate sealed check valve housing. It was noted that the dry-film lubricant applied to the dual-position valve was of different consistency and was heavier than that found on an identical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... setting should also be performed to guarantee accurate reproduction of color tones and surface textures. The type and extent of on-site sampling depends on the environment and its availability. Piping corrosion in a domestic water service would require water samples from the source (incoming water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... The materials specification for new coupling nuts for this application was changed to permit use of only aluminum alloys 6061-T6 and -T651 and 2024-T6, -T62, and -T851 (for identification purposes, the anodic coating on coupling nuts of the new materials was dyed a color different from that used on the aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Existing chemical techniques were not capable of accurately quantifying all species present in the N 2 O 4 , especially compounds of nitrogen; however, cooling of the propellants revealed a color difference in N 2 O 4 between the supplies at Bell and Rockwell. The N 2 O 4 at Rockwell, when cooled to −18...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and/or growth can initiate corrosion. Additionally, the biofilm can cultivate an electrochemical corrosion cell that can lead to localized or general corrosion. The material under the biofilm or deposit is generally the anode while the surrounding area is the cathode. Furthermore, if chloride ions are present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also be performed to guarantee accurate reproduction of color tones and surface textures. The type and extent of on-site sampling depends on the environment and its availability. Piping corrosion in a domestic water service would require water samples from the source (incoming water supply...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... carbonate (by extensive bubble formation) and sulfide (by the odor of hydrogen sulfide or by its reaction with a color indicator such as lead acetate). Iron (II) and (III) can be detected in the resulting acid solution using standard ferricyanide and thiocyanate tests. Addition of a solution of oxalate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of testing in the residue paste was (1) linear polarization, (2) cathodic polarization, and (3) anodic polarization. X-Ray Diffraction and Elemental Analysis To identify the compounds and aggressive agent or agents present in the residue product both powder x-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the tubes was 56.7 mm (2.23 in.), and the average wall thickness was 5.9 mm (0.23 in.). No outside bulging of the tubes was apparent. The outer part of the tubes had a thin adherent oxide, dark brown to black in color. All three sections were cut longitudinally for closer examination. Samples BlSl...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... uniform chemical attack—described in the section “Uniform Corrosion”—in which the anodes and cathodes of the cells are numerous, small, and close together. The analysis of corrosion failures and the development of suitable corrective measures require not only a basic understanding of electrochemistry...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the outside surface and what are suspected (by color) to be iron oxides within the crack surface itself. Fig. 5 Crack perpendicular to longitudinal seam weld Fig. 6 Cracks parallel to circumferential weld The portion of pipe containing the circumferential weld was sectioned and cleaned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-improvement treatment, the oxalic acid etch test, Practice A of ASTM A 262 ( Ref 2 ), was implemented. The polished specimen was etched at a current density of 1 A/cm 2 (6.5 A/in. 2 ) for 1.5 min in 10% oxalic acid-demineralized water, using a piece of type 304 stainless steel as the anode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to generalized uniform chemical attack—described in the section “Uniform Corrosion” —in which the anodes and cathodes of the cells are numerous, small, and close together. The analysis of corrosion failures and the development of suitable corrective measures require not only a basic understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reflecting a high or low signal intensity, a gray-scale image is usually displayed, but any color could theoretically be used. (Note the “color” SEM images often displayed in magazines have been artificially colored after the fact, sometimes by using computer algorithms and other times by an artist’s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Once in the metallography lab the specimens were photographed in the as received condition using a 35 mm camera with color film. After this documentation, the slugs were decontaminated using a 50% solution of phosphoric acid and water. This cleaning removed the contamination and permitted the slugs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... phases are oxides. Occasionally, Ti-rich inclusions were encountered in the wire samples. The smaller elongated inclusions are principally single-phase manganese sulfides, discernable by their uniform gray color and general appearance. Longitudinal Splits Longitudinal splitting was frequently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... condition toward the top of the tubes, in contrast to the severe corrosion toward the bottom, is believed to be the result of differences in exposure to the dilute nitric acid cleaning solution. For example, rings of various colors on the insides of the tubes indicated that the nitric acid was allowed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., or deposit attack. The outermost surface of such scabs or deposits is usually covered with a layer of the higher, ferric oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), due to the greater access which oxygen dissolved in the water has to this region; this oxide is of a reddish colour. The magnetite found on the internal surface...