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cold working

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Micrograph of cold-worked pipe surface at region 3 in Fig. 11 . Etched with nital. 500×. See also Fig. 12 and 14 . More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 73 Depth of decarburization of a cold-worked steel in a fluidized bed in air. Source: Ref 30 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 Cold-worked type 316LR stainless steel that was fatigued in air at different stress levels. Surfaces of broken specimens at fracture edge are shown. (a) Failure at an applied stress of 330 MPa (47.8 ksi) after 7,682,434 load cycles. Only a few glide systems adjacent to the fracture More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Light etching cold work layer noted at the surface of a representative “A” component. Note the uniformity of this layer. Vilella's reagent. Magnification 500× More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Light etching cold work layer noted at the surface of a representative “C” component. This layer was nonuniform and discontinuous in areas. Vilella's reagent. Magnification 500× More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 9 Corresponding etched view of Fig. 8 , illustrating highly cold-worked grains of mostly ferrite with some pearlite. 637times;. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 6 Variation in hardness with cold work in a solution-annealed sample from the dished end More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A heavily worked 304 stainless steel wire basket recrystallized and distorted while in service at 650 deg C (1200 deg F). This case study demonstrates that heavily cold worked austenitic stainless steel components can experience large losses in creep strength, and potentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... macrofractography, SEM fractography, and hardness testing. Fractography established that fracture was by fatigue and that the fatigue cracking originated at corrosion pits. Hardness while below specification, still indicated that the screws were in the cold-worked condition and notch sensitive during fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... on the surface during cyclic loading were observed. The material was showed by the deformation structure to be in the cold-worked condition and was termed to not be the cause of the implant failure. Cyclic loads Slip bands Surgical implants 316L UNS S31603 Fatigue fracture Figure 1(a) shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... boundaries were seen in one of the pins and hence the fracture was revealed to have occurred along the grain boundaries. The other pin made from cold-worked cobalt-chromium alloy was observed to have randomly lines of primary inclusions. Intermingled dimples and fatigue striations were exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and crack deposits. Comparison of the microstructure and hardness of the swaged region and unswaged Grade TP 304 stainless steel tube metal indicated that the swaged section was not annealed to reduce the effects of cold working. The high hardness created during swaging increased the stainless steel's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0046242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... teeth (found at visual inspection) was composed of the same material as the metal in the coupling. Beach marks and evidence of cold work, typical of fatigue failure, were found on the fracture surface. Chips remaining in the analysis cut were difficult to remove, indicating a strong magnetic field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cold-worked condition, it was not possible to determine with certainty if the cracks were of the inter- or trans-granular type. It was concluded that failure was due to stress-corrosion cracking in a chloride environment. Failure of the wires was likely due to the use of a chloride-containing flux...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mm (0.10 in.) in diameter. The chemical specification ( Table 1 ) of the Swedish steel from which the wires were made shows that they are basically a type 316L stainless steel. The wires were also specified to be “ 3 4 hard,” an imprecise indication of the amount of cold working required...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... to the member. At failure, the part was receiving a second set of loads up to 103.6% of design load. Visual investigations showed rubbing and galling of the fillet. Microscopic and metallographic examination revealed beach marks on the fracture surface and evidence of cold work and secondary cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The microstructure near the rupture edge was revealed by metallographic examination to consist of ferrite and acicular martensite or bainite. The microstructure and the observed lack of cold work indicated a temperature above the transformation temperature of 727 deg C had been reached. Swelling of the tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in cold-working and hot-working applications. Appreciable amounts of residual stress are generated by heat treatment and processing of tools steels, and faulty heat treatment is a cause or contributing factor in many tool steel failures (see also the article “Why Tools and Dies Fail,” in the section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes. It is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold working and hot working applications. The processes involved in the analysis of tool...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 Fatigue curves of type 316LR stainless steel implant material tested in bending mode. (a) S-N curves for stainless steel in cold-worked and soft condition that was tested in air and aerated lactated Ringer's solution. (b) Fatigue curve for number of cycles to failure as shown in Fig More