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cold forming

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A cold-formed Grade TP 304 stainless steel swaged region of a reheater tube in service for about 8000 hours cracked because of sulfur-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Cracking initiated from the external surface and a high sulfur content was detected in the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0091857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
..., introducing tensile residual stresses on the inside radii of the shoulders and creating a localized area of fatigue susceptibility due to the inherent notch sensitivity of cold-formed 300 series stainless steel. It was established that the physical root cause was the design of the mixer blade. The addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... hypochlorite solution. It was determined that the assemblies failed due to an austenite-martensite galvanic couple activated by a chlorine bearing electrolyte. The martensitic areas resulted from a transformation during cold-forming operations. Solution annealing after forming, revision of the design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and scabs. The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... at the inside surface and up to 40 HRC at the base of the fin midway between the roots which indicated that the fins were cold formed and not subsequently annealed thus susceptible to SCC because of a high residual stress level. It was revealed by metallographic examination that the fracture was predominantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cold-forming and led to damage by stress corrosion. This would have been the correct method for a ferritic steel, but not austenitic steel, which requires the special heat treatment indicated. When an anneal in the critical region is unavoidable and the indicated additional treatment is impossible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... etched with oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term exposure to the service temperature; the effects of sensitization were intensified as a result of cold forming. Recommendations included using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... form and the longitudinal joint then welded from both sides. No stress-relieving heat-treatment was applied subsequently. The shell was reinforced by two circumferential hoops, made from the same type of steel in the same condition. The hoops were cold-formed from 1 in. ├Ś 1 2 in. bar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., there was a pit from which two cracks originated. These tanks were fabricated by cold-forming operations without any final stress-relieving treatment. From the appearance of bulges at the dished ends, it was inferred that severe hammering could have been resorted to in the fit-up operations before welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the tank axis. Entry and exit connections to the tank were relatively inflexible due to their geometry. As fabricated, individual tubing sections were cold formed to the required radius and butt welded together. All but the final three coils towards the exit were randomly stitch welded together...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-pearlitic structure in these locations ( Fig. 5 ) was very fine-grained and also showed other signs of fast cooling as compared to normally formed structure of the core zone ( Fig. 6 ). It is also possible that the pipe was resting on a cold plate during bending or that it came in touch with a cold tool...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... causing an electrical shorting event in the electronic module it was meant to protect. Fig. 5 Cracking was observed to extend radially around cold formed studs The electroless nickel coating was cross-sectioned and examined as shown in Fig. 6 . Adhesion of these coatings was assessed using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... retainer. Aircraft components Retainers Vibration Cold-formed steel Fatigue fracture The governor on an aircraft engine failed and was returned to the manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. Upon disassembly of the unit, it was discovered that the retainer for the flyweight pivot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... stress while in contact with the molten solder, and this stress may be residual due, for instance, to cold-forming or the result of an externally-applied load, the presence of thermal gradients, or a combination thereof. The value of the minimum stress required does not appear to have been established...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... tolerances are not critical, it is advisable to use cheap conventional cold drawn steel (CDS) tube. Flow forming, therefore, offers several advantages over conventional tube making methods. Flow forming is used to produce a seamless tube with tight dimensional tolerances. Seamless tubing, theoretically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... than at most other locations in the superheater. Reduced creep ductility is another possible cause of failure. Others report that precipitates at the grain boundaries can cause the reduction ( Ref 3 ). Carbon content, manufacturing procedures such as cold forming, and the heat treatment influence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on a metallographic cross section, using an appropriate-load Knoop or Vickers microindentation hardness test. To minimize the chance of hydrogen embrittlement, always temper the parts after hardening heat treatments, or anneal or perform a thermal stress relief after severe cold forming. Residual stresses from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Cold-drawn type 303 stainless steel wire sections, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter, failed during a forming operation. All of the wires failed at a gradual 90 deg bend. Investigation (visual inspection and 5.3x/71x/1187x SEM views) supported the conclusion that the wires cracked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the chances of hydrogen embrittlement problems. To minimize the chance of hydrogen embrittlement, always temper the parts after hardening heat treatments, or anneal or perform a thermal stress relief after severe cold forming. Residual stresses from hardening and cold forming are key factors that could...