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cold end exhaust corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of general corrosion, localized on the weld. The pit density was not calculated. The longitudinal seam weld along which this pitting occurred is at the side of the pipe as installed in the field, indicating exposure only to the vapor of the exhaust. This is in contrast to the corrosion on the bottom...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was built to ASME Section 1 specifications. All the bends were cold bent without post-bend heat treatment. The ASME Code does not require post-bend heat treatment. The previous superheater operated for 100,000 hours. The records show a failure in the alloy 800 at the top near an end. It is unknown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stresses than forging under a hydraulic press while on a mandrel. Rolling is a preferred method — always provided the rolls are capable of exerting a load sufficient for the cold work to penetrate through the full thickness of the end bell, since otherwise the inner and outer surfaces would be stretched...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... deformation distortion distortion failure analysis elastic distortion inelastic cyclic buckling load limits ratcheting THIS HANDBOOK is organized according to four general categories of failure: fracture, corrosion, wear, and the subject of this article, distortion. One reason metals are so widely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... THIS VOLUME is organized according to four general categories of failure: fracture, corrosion, wear, and the subject of this article, distortion. One reason metals are so widely used as engineering materials is that they have high strength but also generally have the capability to respond to load (stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., including coating degradation, is excessive. Grain-boundary attack and/or pitting by oxidation/hot corrosion, is excessive. Foreign object damage is severe. Destructive sampling and testing indicate life exhaustion. Excessive deformation has occurred due to creep, causing distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... velocity, surface finish, and manner of lubrication, if any. Identification of the type of wear problem through visual examination is a very important first step in the failure examination. Many corrosion failures do not involve fracture. For example, a common end result of a corrosion failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Spacecraft separation springs were cold coiled from 13 mm (0.5 in.) 9254 alloy steel high-strength rod ( Ref 12 ). The springs were electroplated with tin and subsequently given a hydrogen embrittlement relief heat treatment at 200 °C (400 °F). Dye-penetrant inspection revealed numerous cracks near one end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Induced Cracking ” and “ Introduction to Forms of Corrosion ” in Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of the ASM Handbook , 2003, as well as the Selected References at the end of this article. The anodic dissolution mechanism theorizes that metal present only at the crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination and EDS revealed that the cracks were filled with tin. It was concluded that the ends of the springs that were resting on the hearth had been heated to or near to the melting point of the tin (230 °C, or 445 °F), and the springs had cracked due to the tin and the residual stresses from cold...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of SCC were known to include ( Ref 9 ): Tensile stress is required. This stress may be supplied by service loads, cold work, mismatch in fitup, heat treatment, and the wedging action of corrosion products. Only alloys are susceptible (no pure metals), although there may be a few exceptions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... FAILURES may be divided into two classes: those rejected after inspection and mechanical testing, and failures in service that may arise from fracture, wear, corrosion, or deformation (distortion). Causes for rejection during inspection may be either features visible on the weldment surface or subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environments very often are principal contributors to failures of springs. Any metal is more likely to be attacked when under stress. Consequently, springs are extremely susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. In some instances of spring failure, the cause is not evident, even after an exhaustive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tools and dies and the causes of their failures. It discusses the failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are important to nearly all manufacturing processes, but is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as: Failures due to insufficient material strength and underdesign Failures due to stress concentration and material defects Failures due to material alteration These categories are neither mutually exclusive nor collectively exhaustive, but they are a useful means for pinpointing those areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... requirements involving corrosion resistance and elevated-temperature service. Many other engineering disciplines also have unique and special requirements for design and materials selection. In electrical engineering design, for example, the physical property requirements (e.g., magnetic, electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preventive measures. Fig. 1 Forms of corrosion. Adapted from Ref 1 More detailed discussions of the fundamentals and mechanisms of corrosion are provided in the References listed at the end of this article and in Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection , Volume 13A of the ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a broader engineering failure. Note that some non-fracture-failure scenarios may ultimately lead to fracture. Wear processes, for example, can ultimately lead to fracture by galling and/or fretting fatigue. Other examples include fatigue crack initiation at surface pits from corrosion, cyclic loading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure due to stress concentration and material defects Overload failure due to material alteration These categories are neither mutually exclusive nor collectively exhaustive, but are a useful means for pinpointing those areas of the design and materials selection that may require corrective...