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cobalt-base materials

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... and suitable recommendations for corrective action. The process of obtaining the correct conclusions and making the correct recommendations is based on an accurate understanding of the part history, a thorough knowledge of the materials, proper analysis using appropriate instrumentation and techniques...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... nozzle originating from a GE MS 500X gas turbine was investigated to define the cause of failure. The base material was cobalt-based superalloy FSX414. The nozzle segment was subjected to a failure analysis following a series of examinations, including visual examination, optical microscopy, SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The first-stage nozzles of a high-pressure turbine section of an industrial gas turbine exhibited leading and trailing-edge deterioration. The nozzles were made of X-40, a cobalt-base alloy, and were aluminide coated. Failure analysis determined that the deterioration was the result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... oxidation thermal-barrier coated superalloys spalling microstructural analysis operating time ECY768 (cobalt-base superalloy) Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Y (cobalt-nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium alloy) Introduction The largest use of coatings on superalloys is on components in the hot gas section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract This investigation characterizes five surgical stainless steel piercings and one niobium piercing that caused adverse reactions during use, culminating with the removal of the jewelry. Chemical composition shows that none of the materials are in accordance with ISO standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... and Shores D. A. , “Mechanism of Na2SO4 Induced Corrosion at 600–900 °C” , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol. 127 , p. 2202 ( 1980 ). 10.1149/1.2129375 16. Stringer J. and Whittle D. P. , “Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Based Alloys” , Deposition and Corrosion in Gas Turbines , Wiley , New...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sensitization stress-corrosion cracking sulfidation thermal barrier coatings WHEN FAILURES OCCUR, the unscheduled outages result in loss of reliability and increased economic costs. A failure investigation can determine the primary cause of material, component, or system degradation. Based...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... implant materials: Stainless steel: ASTM F 55-82, ASTM F 56-82, ASTM F 138-82, ASTM F 139-82 (contains remelted Special Quality), ISO/DIS 5832/1 (1986) Unalloyed titanium: ASTM F 67-83, ISO 5832/II (1984) Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI: ASTM F 136-79, ISO 5832/III (1978) Cast cobalt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of reliability and increased economic costs. A failure investigation can determine the primary cause(s) of materials, components, or system degradation. Based on the analysis, corrective action to mitigate or eliminate future failures can be initiated. Analysis of the failure always begins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and power turbines and, in some cases, the aft-most stages of the compressor. Therefore, creep-resistant nickel and cobalt-base superalloys are typically used for components in these high-temperature regions of the gas turbine. There are multiple mechanisms by which creep manifests in a material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are far more erosion resistant than the standard constructional materials described earlier are well known. The best of these, exemplified by cobalt-base alloys and NiTi alloys, are characterized by energy-absorbing deformation modes: fine twinning, stress- or strain-induced phase transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and graph of a crack fracture surface. Base metal elements revealed that the impeller material was an AISI 4300 alloy steel. Element wt% at.% Silicon 0.27 0.53 Chromium 1.10 1.18 Manganese 0.88 0.89 Iron 96.40 96.12 Nickel 1.35 1.28 Scanning Electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...- and cobalt-base alloys and precious metals (gold, platinum, and palladium). These filler materials, when used with improved atmospheres such as ultradry hydrogen and vacuum and equipment such as vacuum furnaces with gas-quenching capabilities, have raised the upper-temperature brazing limit to above 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... additional precipitation or growth of gamma prime occurs from supersaturation of the matrix. Gamma-prime overaging, shown in Fig. 9 , can occur, which compromises the properties and reduces the life of turbine blades. Fig. 9 Gamma-prime overaging in a nickel-base alloy turbine blade material. (a) SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... creep failure is used. For example, a creep failure of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane is shown in Fig. 1 . The bowing is the result of a reduction in creep strength at the higher temperatures from overheating. Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane from overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure is used. For example, a creep failure of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane is shown in Fig. 1 . The bowing is the result of a reduction in creep strength at the higher temperatures from overheating. Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane from overheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of a susceptible material, a tensile stress, and a corrosive environment. In the case of IGSCC in BWR piping, these conditions are typically present in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of type 304 stainless steel base metal piping immediately adjacent to welds. Here, the thermal treatment associated with the welding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... than may be acceptable for wrought product. If the material has been subject to a surface treatment such as carburization of steel, the chemist should be told, so that an erroneous carbon content based on analysis of layers including the enriched surface layers is not reported. When a component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...% S. It was concluded that the material was a precipitation-hardening nickel-base superalloy comparable to Udimet 500, Udimet 710, or René 77. This type of alloy is not normally used for gas turbine blades. Coatings or Surface Layers It is common practice to apply a special coating to gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... strip to restrict its movement over the sleeve. Incoloy 800 (UNS N08800) is Fe–Ni base super and heat resistant alloy widely used material for construction of equipment requiring corrosion resistance, heat resistance, strength, and stability for service up to 816 °C. It is a solid solution...