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cobalt-base conversion coatings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., 347 925 1695 6 330 1150 2100 6 405, 410 705 1300 6 416 675 1245 6 420 620 1150 6 430 815 1500 6 440 760 1400 6 442 980 1795 6 446 1095 2005 6 Superalloys N-155 iron-base superalloy 1040 1905 3 S-816 cobalt-base alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and power turbines and, in some cases, the aft-most stages of the compressor. Therefore, creep-resistant nickel and cobalt-base superalloys are typically used for components in these high-temperature regions of the gas turbine. There are multiple mechanisms by which creep manifests in a material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... information about the heat treated condition of the material and anomalies that could have contributed to the corrosion failure. In many cases, it is useful to examine cross sections of the corrosion product together with the base metal. Various techniques are used to retain the scale without pullout...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... white cast iron (standard gray or ductile cast irons are poor), high-chromium (that is, 13 to 28%) alloy steel, cobalt-base superalloys such as Stellite, and special nickel-base alloys such as Ni-Hard. These materials are useful not only for the flow-path surfaces but also as sleeves in sealing areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of algae and fungi Paints and coatings; used when a gel-resistant AF compound is required Zinc pyrithione Broad-spectrum biocide preferred in soft-fouling applications; often combined with copper oxide ( Ref 167 ) Polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, polyolefins, adhesives, and water-based sealants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of mixed behavior was created based on results (rounded silica sand of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, or 0.004 to 0.01 in., diameter; 61 m/s, or 200 ft/s, velocity) obtained for WC-15wt%Co cemented carbide consisting of brittle tungsten carbide grains and ductile cobalt matrix ( Ref 49 ). Erosion of a given material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and fuel leaks around the fastener Fretting Load-carrying capacity has been significantly improved by increasing the head diameter of fasteners in order to distribute loads over a greater surface area. The bases of nuts and collars were similarly increased. Fasteners for composites should fit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., A ( Ref 47 ): (Eq 4) A = E d 4 × Q ∗ × δ S Based on the Mindlin theory, it was demonstrated that there is a constant, A t = 0.2, for sphere-on-flat contact below which the contact operates under partial slip (i.e., A < A t ) and above which the contact runs under gross...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... noble metals and alloys therefore tend to be minimized. Cobalt-Base Alloys Cobalt-base alloys, most of which are chromium bearing, are resistant to galvanic corrosion because of their noble position in the galvanic series. However, in environments in which their passive film is not stable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the fastener, and fretting. Load-carrying capacity has been significantly improved by increasing the head diameter of fasteners in order to distribute loads over a greater surface area. The bases of nuts and collars were similarly increased. Fasteners for composites should fit the holes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-called stage II propagation. Notches, sharp corners, or preexisting cracks can also eliminate detectable stage I propagation in many metals. Similarly, some alloys (such as certain nickel base superalloys and cobalt base alloys) can display very extensive regions of propagation on specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... therefore tend to be minimized. Cobalt-Base Alloys Cobalt-base alloys, most of which are chromium bearing, are resistant to galvanic corrosion because of their noble position in the galvanic series. However, in environments in which their passive film is not stable, they occupy a more active position...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... initiation in such alloys, growth immediately occurs by so-called stage II propagation. Notches, sharp corners, or preexisting cracks can also eliminate detectable stage I propagation in many metals. In contrast, some alloys (such as certain nickel-base superalloys and cobalt-base alloys) can display very...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... creep failure is used. For example, a creep failure of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane is shown in Fig. 1 . The bowing is the result of a reduction in creep strength at the higher temperatures from overheating. Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane from overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., hacksaws, band saws, or soft abrasive cutoff wheels flooded with water-based soluble oil solution to keep metal surfaces cool and corrosion-free. Dry cutting with an air-driven abrasive disk may also be used with care to remove small specimens from large parts if kept cool, along with coating the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., there are four general categories of SCC propagation mechanisms: anodic dissolution, film-induced cleavage, adsorption-based mechanisms, and hydrogen embrittlement. Each mechanism is described briefly. For a more in-depth discussion, the reader is referred to the articles “ Introduction to Environmentally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) mechanical integrity requirements and American Petroleum Institute (API) inspection requirements. A knowledge base of equipment failures is also a useful input into a plant mechanical integrity program, with the aim of continual reliability improvement. Objectives of a Failure Analysis The objectives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... removed from a cast component may not necessarily bear relation to grade/condition determination based on separately poured test bars, results suggested the G3000 grade designation for automotive gray cast iron. The typical fracture morphology within the matrix was transgranular cleavage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... articles ( Ref 1 , 2 ), review articles ( Ref 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ), and the Selected References listed at the end of this article. General Characteristics of SCC Based on extensive empirical investigations, a number of special characteristics of SCC have been observed and categorized...