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coating formation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... SEM/EDX detection unit revealed significant peaks of B, O, Zr and Fe. Moreover, the shape of the pits was similar to an arc crater. The formation of pits in the wire was caused during coating due to microarcing. A contaminated fixture used during the coating most likely caused the microarcing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract During construction of a river bridge with 80 twisted cables, one or more fractures were found in each of 21 wires of 18 cables before assembly. All were located at the outside wrapping whose Z-profile wires were galvanically zinc-coated. It was suspected that hydrogen played...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Cracks were discovered between interference-fit fasteners (MoS2-coated Ti-6Al-4V) that had been incorporated into a fighter aircraft primary structural frame (D6ac steel) to enhance structural fatigue life. Examination of sections cut from the cracked frame established...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... An examination of the total applied cathodic current and the distribution of cathodic current to different anodes over a period of time indicated some malfunctioning in the internal CP system. The blistering in the coating led to the formation of a number of electrolytic cells on the surface of the bottom plates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... into the beta-phase field and holding for a sufficient time to allow for the formation of sinter necks between beads and between beads and tray. These sinter necks were observed by sectioning the bead-coated trays with a diamond saw, polishing, and imaging with back-scattered electrons. The sinter necks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the zinc layer and the strong alloy formation. Even in the case of steel parts with lower silicon contents the reaction between iron and zinc can continue until the pure zinc layer has been consumed entirely if the work piece is not cooled sufficiently rapidly after withdrawal. The zinc coating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... 200× Abstract Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are usually applied to prevent the formation of insulating oxide debris. However, when the coating is worn out and the interface reaches the nonnoble copper alloy substrate, insulating oxide debris is formed and the electrical conductivity is decayed. The durability of the electrical contact resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH ( Ref 1 ). In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 1000 bar from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground ( Ref 15 ). Microbial communities exist in environments as diverse...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and sliding speed at the contact. In some cases, there is strong evidence of crack and void formation in subsurface regions ( Ref 5 ), while in others, no cracks are visible ( Ref 6 ). In other specimens, varying degrees of crack formation in the white layer or along the deformation zone/white layer interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... A brief discussion on coatings to improve surface-initiated fatigue and wear is included, due to the similarity to RCF and the increasing criticality of this failure mode. The article presents a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory, describes the life prediction of rolling-element bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of bond coat due to TGO formation and at the bond-coat/substrate interface due to interdiffusion. The thickness of β-depleted zone is typically a function of exposure time and temperature [ 6 ]. The β-depleted zone thickness of 400 and 721ES were, respectively, 10 and 15 μm at the outer surface of bond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-free water and seawater, because there is limited cathodic reaction possible. If the surface of the metal is coated with paint or other nonconducting film, the rates of both anodic and cathodic reactions are greatly reduced, and corrosion will be retarded. A corrosion inhibitor is a substance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coatings, chrome plating, etc.) can give very stable friction and excellent galling resistance ( Ref 60 , 61 , 155 ). In the case of diamond- and graphite-like carbon coatings sliding against steel, superior adhesive wear resistance can be attributed to the in situ formation of a transferred, low-shear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy revealed that the failure was due to sulfidation. The source of the sulfur in the furnace effluent was either dimethyl disulfide, injected into the furnace feed to prevent coke formation and carburization of the furnace tubes, or contamination of the feed with sulfur bearing oil. Energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-hardening nickel-base superalloy comparable to Udimet 500, Udimet 710, or Rene 77. Typical protective coatings were not found. Test results further showed that the fuel used was not adequate to guarantee the operating life of the blades due to excess sulfur trioxide, carbon, and sodium in the combustion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the gas was the cause of damage. Hydrogen liberated by reaction with the iron caused the formation of iron sulfide after penetration of the steel, which had an explosive effect during molecular separation under high pressure. This in turn caused the crack formation in conjunction with the external...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are stress rupture, creep, low- or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, and coating degradation in gas turbines. For high-temperature tubing and piping components, embrittlement phenomena can occur at high temperatures due to metallurgical instabilities; for example, carbide coarsening, sigma-phase formation...