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closed-die forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the forgings and from material flow during trimming and/or material flow during forging. Closed-die forging Cracking (fracturing) Die forgings Alloy steel Carbon steel Metalworking-related failures Intergranular fracture Background Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... made of titanium alloy IMI 550, with a nominal composition of 4% Al, 4% Mo, were manufactured by the closed-die forging process. Targeting bosses flash buttons at the extremities of the blades serve as reference points for dimensional control and are later removed by grinding. Visual Scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the crack produced during quenching that was open during tempering. Coarse machining marks and deep stamp marks were also present. Fig. 2(a) Front view of an AISI O1 tool steel die that cracked during oil quenching. The die face contains holes that are too close to the edge for safe quenching. See...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of time until crack initiation for closed cold forging die and calculated damage parameters yielding different estimates of tool life and compared with practical data. Falk et al. [ 6 ] showed that damage approaches like local stress, local energy, and volume-based lifetime approach could result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... roughing die, where it was given a single large deformation at a high strain rate. The partially-formed kingpin was then moved to the finishing die and given a smaller deformation at a slower strain rate. The final piece was trimmed of flash and dropped in a steel bin to cool. It was then reaustenitized...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (a) Macrograph of fracture, (b) SEM fractograph, and (c) light micrograph showing shrinkage cavities in an unusual tensile fracture from a carbon steel casting. The microstructure was revealed using nital. Fig. 25 Light micrographs of two cross-sectional views of a seam found on a closed-die forged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to determine where the nickel plating ends and the surface begins, as shown in Fig. 3 (d). Figure 4 shows an example of ion-nitrided hot work die steel with a brittle white-etching iron nitride surface layer that is quite visible when mounted in a mineral-filled epoxy resin, but would probably be very hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting process, casting material, and design with examples. The casting processes discussed include gravity die casting, pressure die casting, semisolid casting, squeeze casting, and centrifugal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., stainless steel, age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during configuration design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... area ( A ) and are thin ( t ), which are defined as A = 50 t . Fig. 24 Die quenching system. Courtesy of Gleason Tooling Products Group Parts that exceed these dimensions often must be straightened or press quenched to maintain dimensional stability ( Ref 23 ). If possible, materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (α + β) phase field working (extrusion + two die forging operations) to provide a uniformly worked α + β microstructure. This processing was followed by annealing for 3 h at 700 °C (973 K). Precision sectioning of one of the fracture surfaces, at and near the fatigue origin, was done to check...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) Section through lap showing grain flow around tip. ASTM 186 etch. Original magnification: 200× These longitudinal discontinuities in bar or wire stock are caused by imperfections in the drawing die. They are similar to folds and can act as stress raisers during forming processes. Seams have blunt...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... shank are very important to failure prevention. Failures have also occurred where names, numbers, and other identification marks are die stamped or imprinted on highly stressed surfaces. Information on the effects of identification marks is provided in the articles “Fatigue Failures” and “Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-polisher (Diprofiler) which was originally developed for the die-making trade was utilized. This instrument has been found to be suitable for many field metallographic applications, especially for curved or difficult to access locations. Grinding stages were performed with a series of silicon carbide tools...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... close-packed, or hcp zinc) as well as nonmetallic materials (NaCl) seemed to indicate that cleavage could be predicted by a critical normal stress law (Sohnke's law) ( Ref 2 ) dating from 1869. References 3 , 4 , 5 contain data and discussion of this early work. Similarly, plastic deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and often second-phase particles and constituents as well as grain boundaries, all of which affect the fracture nucleation and growth process. Fig. 1 Single-crystal chisel point. Source: Ref 19 Early work using metallic materials of low symmetry (rhombohedral bismuth; hexagonal close-packed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on, these three orientations are longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse. For other manufacturing operations such as die forgings, castings, and additive manufacturing, the mechanical property dependency on location and orientation can be even more complex. Therefore, it is important that any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... initiation. The LCF tests are carried out on small, unnotched specimens under pure alternating strain cycles ( R ε = −1) ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Example of low-cycle fatigue curve for a die-cast aluminum alloy The LCF curve is usually expressed by the Manson-Coffin equation ( Ref 9 , 10 ), which...