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closed-die forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the forgings and from material flow during trimming and/or material flow during forging. Closed-die forging Cracking (fracturing) Die forgings Alloy steel Carbon steel Metalworking-related failures Intergranular fracture Background Cracks occasionally formed on the parting lines of medium...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 19 Light micrographs of two cross-sectional views of a seam in a closed-die forged pitman arm showing decarburization and internal oxidation. Etched with 2% nital More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Light micrographs of two cross-sectional views of a seam found on a closed-die forged pitman arm showing decarburization and internal oxidation. Etched with 2% nital More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Pertinent Specifications The blades were made of titanium alloy IMI 550, with a nominal composition of 4% Al, 4% Mo, were manufactured by the closed-die forging process. Targeting bosses flash buttons at the extremities of the blades serve as reference points for dimensional control and are later...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure to a fine-grained wrought structure while reducing the ingot to a more usable size and shape. Most large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the crack produced during quenching that was open during tempering. Coarse machining marks and deep stamp marks were also present. Fig. 2(a) Front view of an AISI O1 tool steel die that cracked during oil quenching. The die face contains holes that are too close to the edge for safe quenching. See...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the depth of the crack produced during quenching that was open during tempering. Coarse machining marks and deep stamp marks were also present. Fig. 2 (a) Front view of an AISI O1 tool steel die that cracked during oil quenching. The die face contains holes that are too close to the edge for safe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract To forged AISI 4140 steel trailer kingpins fractured after 4 to 6 months of service. Fractographic and metallographic examination revealed that cracks were present in the spool-flange shoulder region of the defective kingpins prior to installation on the trailers. The cracks grew...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the stress amplitude, σ a , in the loading cycle. Fig. 1 Extrusion loading cycles So far, numerous studies have been performed for the improvement of tool fatigue life. Tong et al. [ 4 ] have used S-N approach and finite element analysis for the estimation of forging die fatigue life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forgings that have not been worked sufficiently to close it up. Both macroporosity and microporosity are caused by the combined action of metal shrinkage and gas evolution during solidification. It has been shown ( Ref 2 , 3 ) that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be uniformly spaced, more even cooling rates can be obtained by filling the holes with heat-resistant material or by closing them with a bolt. Fig. 2 Quench cracks formed in oil-quenched tool steel die. Cracks originated from the sharp corners of the keyway and from holes that were located too close...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to section materials that are small, delicate, friable, extremely hard, or where the cut must be made as close as possible to a feature of interest, or where the cut width and material loss must be minimal. As the name implies, this type of saw is designed to make very precise cuts. They are smaller in size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., anodizing) and secondary cracks close Survey of the Results Thermomechanical Processing and Heat Treatment As stated earlier, the failed rotor hub (M323) was a monolithic Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy forging. The forging was produced from billet stock by conventional (α + β) phase field working...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are commonly used in metallographic preparation to section materials that are small, delicate, friable, extremely hard, or where the cut must be made as close as possible to a feature of interest, or where the cut width and material loss must be minimal. As the name implies, this type of saw is designed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to distinguish, because the microstructure strongly influences the local crack orientation, and nonstriation fatigue features can be more apparent than the striations themselves. In addition, if the crack closes on itself due to compression loading, the striations may be rubbed out or burnished, especially near...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are very important to failure prevention. Failures have also occurred where names, numbers, and other identification marks are die stamped or imprinted on highly stressed surfaces. Information on the effects of identification marks is provided in the articles “Fatigue Failures” and “Failures of Shafts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The rotor in question was a tandem, double flow, low-pressure type and was constructed with a central separate shaft with shrunk on forged discs with semi-circular keyways to key them to the shaft. The disc was manufactured from a 2.5% Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel in the water quenched and tempered condition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... area ( A ) and are thin ( t ), which are defined as A = 50 t . Fig. 24 Die quenching system. Courtesy of Gleason Tooling Products Group Parts that exceed these dimensions often must be straightened or press quenched to maintain dimensional stability ( Ref 23 ). If possible, materials...