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closed die forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the forgings and from material flow during trimming and/or material flow during forging. Closed-die forging Cracking (fracturing) Die forgings Alloy steel Carbon steel Metalworking-related failures Intergranular fracture Background Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... made of titanium alloy IMI 550, with a nominal composition of 4% Al, 4% Mo, were manufactured by the closed-die forging process. Targeting bosses flash buttons at the extremities of the blades serve as reference points for dimensional control and are later removed by grinding. Visual Scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... transmission case covers. Macrograph shows the worn-out surface of the die. Original magnification: 0.25×. Close-up views of areas 1 and 2 are shown in Fig. 49 . Fig. 49 Close-up views of areas 1 and 2 shown in Fig. 48 . (a) Area 1 reveals heat checking on the working surface. Original...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the crack produced during quenching that was open during tempering. Coarse machining marks and deep stamp marks were also present. Fig. 2(a) Front view of an AISI O1 tool steel die that cracked during oil quenching. The die face contains holes that are too close to the edge for safe quenching. See...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the ingot to a more usable size and shape. Most large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings are produced from billets, bar stock, or a preform, all of which have received some previous mechanical working. The major problems associated with melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... This susceptibility to cracking is increased by the presence of stress raisers such as sharp fillets, tool marks or other notches, massive inclusions or voids. Quench cracks may also occur near the trim line of a closed-die forging where some localized burning may have occurred. Other factors that affect quench...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of time until crack initiation for closed cold forging die and calculated damage parameters yielding different estimates of tool life and compared with practical data. Falk et al. [ 6 ] showed that damage approaches like local stress, local energy, and volume-based lifetime approach could result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract To forged AISI 4140 steel trailer kingpins fractured after 4 to 6 months of service. Fractographic and metallographic examination revealed that cracks were present in the spool-flange shoulder region of the defective kingpins prior to installation on the trailers. The cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to section materials that are small, delicate, friable, extremely hard, or where the cut must be made as close as possible to a feature of interest, or where the cut width and material loss must be minimal. As the name implies, this type of saw is designed to make very precise cuts. They are smaller in size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., such as steels. Precision saws are commonly used in metallographic preparation to section materials that are small, delicate, friable, extremely hard, or where the cut must be made as close as possible to a feature of interest, or where the cut width and material loss must be minimal. As the name implies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, additive manufacture, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., stainless steel, age-hardening aluminum alloys, etc.), its general product form (e.g., wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, etc.), and the processing method (e.g., forged, die cast, injection molded, etc.). All of these factors must be considered when the shape of a part is defined during configuration design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forgings that have not been worked sufficiently to close it up. Both macroporosity and microporosity are caused by the combined action of metal shrinkage and gas evolution during solidification. It has been shown ( Ref 2 , 3 ) that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... area ( A ) and are thin ( t ), which are defined as A = 50 t . Fig. 24 Die quenching system. Courtesy of Gleason Tooling Products Group Parts that exceed these dimensions often must be straightened or press quenched to maintain dimensional stability ( Ref 23 ). If possible, materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to standard finishing (machining, shot peening, etching, anodizing) and secondary cracks close Thermomechanical Processing and Heat Treatment As stated earlier, the failed rotor hub (M323) was a monolithic Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy forging. The forging was produced from billet stock by conventional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or high-strength steels—very common materials—striations may often be difficult to distinguish, because the microstructure strongly influences the local crack orientation, and nonstriation fatigue features can be more apparent than the striations themselves. In addition, if the crack closes on itself due...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... shank are very important to failure prevention. Failures have also occurred where names, numbers, and other identification marks are die stamped or imprinted on highly stressed surfaces. Information on the effects of identification marks is provided in the articles “Fatigue Failures” and “Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-pressure type and was constructed with a central separate shaft with shrunk on forged discs with semi-circular keyways to key them to the shaft. The disc was manufactured from a 2.5% Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel in the water quenched and tempered condition. The various stages in the investigation are outlined...