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close-tolerance forgings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., the tapered interior of the 150-mm (6-in.) diam shank ( Fig. 1a ) was machined to close tolerances and had a smooth finish. Investigation Conclusions Recommendations Selected Reference Selected Reference • Wulpi D.J. , Failures of Shafts , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... time before or during the forging process, followed by closing of the crack on subsequent forging and shot peening to produce a very tight defect that was not detected prior to service. The fatigue band was active for a considerable time and appeared to have progression marks consistent with those...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., economical metal forming technology that can meet the challenging requirements of high specific strength, close dimensional tolerances, and excellent surface finish demanded by the defense and aerospace industries. The relatively low tooling cost and remarkable material utilization due to chipless metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for S, 7 min for S11). Failures of these and other concrete roughers all occurred at the change in section (arrows indicate cracks). Holes placed too close to the edges of components are a common source of failure during Treat treatment or in service. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show an AISI O1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... procedure of the entire design process, even during the early stages of design. Fig. 1 Interrelated factors involved in the design process. Source: Ref 1 Materials selection and design are also closely related to the objectives of failure analysis and prevention. These processes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Establishment of aircraft structural integrity program (ASIP) in 1958 F-111 Aircraft No. 94 wing pivot fitting ( Ref 11 ) 1969 Fatigue failure due to material defect in high-strength steel Improved inspection techniques Change from fatigue “safe-life” to damage-tolerant design philosophy Development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the pressure cycles in service, the sleeve cannot tolerate surface flaws. Fig. 20 Application-life diagram showing effects of manufacturing-caused surface discontinuities on service life Service The life of a component or system is heavily dependent on the conditions under which the product...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Critical speed Inadequate strength Inadequate controls and protective devices Fabrication Welding error Improper heat treatment Improper hardness Wrong surface finish Imbalance Lube passages not open Assembly Improper fit Improper tolerances Parts omitted Parts in wrong Parts/bolts not tight Poor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in.) in diameter and ∼15 mm (0.6 in.) wide, and they are fabricated of WC particles cemented in a nickel matrix. The rings ride on a very thin film of water against a matching graphite ring surface, and proper sealing requires extremely close tolerances on flatness and surface finish. Several failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be constructed and counted on the basis of the cyclic stress-strain curve. For the damage calculation, the strain amplitude of each closed loop is compared with a strain-amplitude number of cycles to crack-initiation curve (LCF curve), including a mean stress correction with damage parameters. The necessary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by accidental overload and is relatively rare in normal operation. Creep, a form of distortion at elevated temperatures, can lead to stress rupture and can also cause shafts having close tolerances to fail because of excessive changes in critical dimensions. Fracture Origins Fractures of shafts originate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was located very close to the crack tip ( Fig. 13 ). In a number of bolt hole specimens containing crack lengths ranging from 2 to 7 mm (0.08 to 0.28 in.), the size of plastic zones did not vary significantly, indicating that ΔK was indeed constant and Ry was approximately 0.45 mm (0.0 18 in.). The ΔKwas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Although steel cracking is most often due to nonuniform heating and cooling, material problems may be encountered. Some typical material problems include ( Ref 22 ): The compositional tolerances should be checked to ensure that the alloy is within specification. Some alloys are particularly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the tensile strength; this has since been modified to the relation shown in Fig. 2 , using the alternating fatigue strength determined experimentally. Gerber found that the early experiments of Wöhler fitted closely to a parabolic relation, and this is known as Gerber's parabola (curve, Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forgings that have not been worked sufficiently to close it up. Both macroporosity and microporosity are caused by the combined action of metal shrinkage and gas evolution during solidification. It has been shown ( Ref 2 , 3 ) that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are crevices in the surface of the metal that have been closed, but not welded, by working the metal. Seams seldom penetrate to the core of bar stock. Seams may cause additional cracking in hot forging and quench cracking during heat treatment. Oxides in a seam can be the result of exposure to elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the transformation of retained austenite. What may not be as well appreciated is that even if cracking does not occur, the transformation may create a distortion failure due to dimensional growth or warpage in a close-tolerance assembly, such as a precision bearing. When the temperature is changed, different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of retained austenite. What may not be as well appreciated is that even if cracking does not occur, the transformation may create a distortion failure due to dimensional growth or warpage in a close-tolerance assembly, such as a precision bearing. When the temperature is changed, different coefficients...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., a cast material, to an ASTM A182-82 Grade F6a (Nuclear Class 4), which is a forging and has proven operating history for end fittings of CANDU reactors. Thus, the possibility of defects arising from a casting is eliminated. The heat treatment procedure was very closely monitored and controlled to give...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to another element in the same unit or to another working unit either in the same plane and direction or in a completely different plane or direction. The force due to this transmission may either increase or decrease in magnitude from one element to the next. Design and function are closely associated...