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classification of cast irons

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds. It presents the international classification of common casting defects in a tabular form. austenitic steels cast aluminum alloys cast iron casting casting defects casting design castings centrifugal casting corrosion-resistant castings discontinuities ductile iron gravity die...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Metallic Materials , Z. Metallkd. , Vol 69 , 1978 , p 643 – 650 26. Zum Gahr K.-H. and Doane D.V. , Optimizing Fracture Toughness and Abrasion Resistance in White Cast Irons , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 11 , 1980 , p 613 – 620 10.1007/BF02670698 27. Czichos H...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Classification of Wear” in this article. Sometimes, erosive wear is classified as a third category. Erosive-type wear includes phenomena from liquid impingement and cavitation wear, as discussed in other articles in this Section on “Wear Failures.” Another special type of wear is contact fatigue, where cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... classification of shape-casting processes. Source: Ref 13 Fig. 10 Permanent mold of 4130 steel for centrifugal casting of gray and ductile iron pipe that failed because of localized overheating. The failure was caused by splashing of molten metal at the spigot end. Subsequent overheating resulted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... high, a final transition into severe wear by asperity melting takes place. Fig. 6 Dry sliding wear maps. (a) Steels. Source: Ref 5 , 17 . (b) 7071 aluminum alloy sliding against AISI 32100 steel. Source: Ref 18 . (c) Low-metallic-friction material sliding against pearlitic cast iron. Source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The turbine vanes as stationary hot parts are not subjected to centrifugal loads and can be made of high-strength-cast cobalt-based superalloys. Cobalt-based superalloys such as FSX 414 show good resistance to hot corrosion and good weldability. Iron–nickel-based superalloys, e.g., Inconel 718 are typically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bushing material is porous bronze, which can be impregnated with lubricant. For a little higher cost, cast iron bearings can be used, particularly for large and flat surfaces. Polymers, gray cast iron (with large amounts of graphite), and bronzes (see the section “Bronze Bearing Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... service-run cast IN-738 nickel-base superalloy gas turbine blades ( Fig. 1 ). Fractographic examination of a fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an intergranular crack surface at the trailing edge ( Fig. 2 ). Comparison with images in an atlas of fracture features taken from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Plastics or polymers are used in a variety of engineering and nonengineering applications where they are subjected to surface damage and wear. This article discusses the classification of polymer wear mechanisms based on the methodologies of defining the types of wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... critical temperature (Ac 3 ). If, however, the tube temperature was high enough to transform the iron in the steel from ferrite to austenite, there is no noticeable “necking down,” or reduction, in wall thickness of the fracture edges. There is still metal elongation and tube swelling, so that measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...). Allowable pressures on sheaves of three materials for various classifications of wire rope Table 2 Allowable pressures on sheaves of three materials for various classifications of wire rope Rope classification Allowable pressures on sheaves made of: Cast iron Cast steel 11-13Mn...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... classifications of wire rope<xref rid="n0010060" ref-type="table-fn">(a)</xref> Table 2 Allowable pressures on sheaves of three materials for various classifications of wire rope (a) Rope classification Allowable pressures on sheaves made of: Cast iron Cast steel 11-13Mn steel Mpa psi Mpa...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of creep °C °F T as ratio of T M , K Aluminum alloys 150–200 300–400 0.48–0.54 T M Titanium alloys 315 600 0.3 T M Low-alloy steels 370 700 0.36 T M Austenitic, iron-base, heat-resisting alloys 540 1000 0.49 T M Nickel- and cobalt-base heat-resisting alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the component Tool and die setup: Alignment must be precise to avoid irregular, excessive stresses that will accelerate wear or cause cracking Tool and die operation: Overloading must be avoided to ensure achievement of the desired component life The above classification of factors, while...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of local discoloration at the contacting surfaces, there being a reddish color with the products of fretting on steel or cast iron surfaces and blackish stains on aluminum alloys. A major risk when fretting occurs is the development of surface cracks that might then grow by fatigue. Energy-Dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation. A telltale sign of fretting in materials that oxidize is the development of local discoloration at the contacting surfaces, there being a reddish color with the products of fretting on steel or cast iron surfaces and blackish stains on aluminum alloys. A major risk when fretting occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., approximately 30% of its expected life. The disk, cut from the mandrel, was macroetched (10% aqueous nitric acid), revealing a heavily decarburized surface. The decarburization occurred during service. Fig. 48 Runner block made from a proprietary hot work tool steel that was used to die cast aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equivalent to the classification of hydrogen embrittlement in steels that is defined in Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Volume 1, ASM Handbook , as follows ( Ref 5 ): Hydrogen environmental embrittlement Hydrogen stress cracking Loss in tensile ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as magnesium or zinc, may be introduced into the galvanic assembly. The most active member will corrode while providing cathodic protection to the other members in the galvanic assembly (for example, zinc anodes in cast iron waterboxes of copper alloy water-cooled heat exchangers). Cathodic protection...