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classes of refractory metals

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... additions. With the new generations of “black refractories,” which contain 7% or more carbon materials (mainly natural graphite), adding one or two metallic additions to act as “antioxidants” or to protect carbon is mandatory. The technical ceramics, on the other hand, constitute an ill-defined class...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the high-temperature degradation were also analyzed and are discussed. pressure vessel fracture overtemperature steel bulging rupture x-ray diffraction analysis fracture toughness SA387 grade 11 class 2 (1.25Cr-0.5Mo chromium-molybdenum alloy steel) ASTM B424 (Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu alloy, Incoloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., the passengers and mail were transferred from the dock to the ship by the two White Star Line tenders, the SS Nomadic and the SS Traffic. Many of the first class passengers came on board at Cherbourg after having spent the winter in the South of France, on the Greek Isles, or in Egypt. The next morning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Steel in Bone Surgery,” Injury , 2000 , 31 , SD2 – 6 . 19. Matsuno H. , Yokoyama A. , Watari F. , Uo M. , and Kawasaki T. : “Biocompatibility and Osteogenesis of Refractory Metal Implants, Titanium, Hafnium, Niobium, Tantalum and Rhenium,” Biomaterials , 2001...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... from a high alloy steel with the trade name “Supertherm”, and the reformer tubes are centrifugally cast from HK 40 steel. The manifold is made from a seamless tube of Incoloy 800H, as shown in Figure 1 . The manifold, located within the furnace, is protected externally by a refractory coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... options to a broad category of material. Metals can be subdivided into categories such as carbon steel, stainless steel, and copper alloys. Plastics can be subdivided into specific classes of thermoplastics and thermosets, such as polycarbonates and polyesters. Level IV: Select a specific material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... category of material. Metals can be subdivided into categories such as carbon steel, stainless steel, and copper alloys. Plastics can be subdivided into specific classes of thermoplastics and thermosets, such as polycarbonates and polyesters. Level IV: Select a specific material according...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (or defects, in the terminology used by the ICFTA classification scheme, Table 1 ): Metallic projections Cavities Discontinuities Defects Incomplete casting Incorrect dimension Inclusions or structural anomalies International classification of common casting defects Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... sustained preload fasteners Alloy steel Cadmium/nickel Good (h) Excellent Excellent Excellent (a) Blind rivets with controlled shank expansion. (b) Metallic structure on backside. (c) Performance in honeycomb should be substantiated by installation testing. (d) Blind bolts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of additives. This article is divided into five sections: mechanical property modifiers, physical property modifiers, biological function modifiers, processing aids, and colorants. It describes three classes of additives that are used to inhibit biological activity, six classes of mechanical property modifiers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by damage mechanisms or for evaluating the risk of failure by mechanisms such as: Brittle fracture Metal loss, including localized, general, and pitting Hydrogen blisters and hydrogen damage associated with hydrogen-induced cracking and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking Weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to gas turbine blades and power plant piping. Design, operation, and failure analysis of metallic components and structures operating at elevated temperatures requires additional considerations that are not pertinent at lower temperatures. Elevated temperature is a relative term, depending...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... related interest in quantitative assessment of load carrying capability as predicted by fracture mechanics (and vice versa). The coupling probably first became obvious when Griffith's model for brittle fracture was applied to the study of cleavage fracture in metallic materials in 1954...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... FAILURES may be divided into two classes: those rejected after inspection and mechanical testing, and failures in service that may arise from fracture, wear, corrosion, or deformation (distortion). Causes for rejection during inspection may be either features visible on the weldment surface or subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Brittle Fracture in Metals” in this Volume. Macroscopic Features Macroscopic features typically help identify the fracture initiation site and crack propagation direction. The orientation of the fracture surface, the location of crack initiation site(s), and the crack propagation direction should...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... loading? What was the spectrum? What was the failure criterion? If there were runouts, how were they handled and represented? An example of what should be considered important as supporting facts can be found in ASTM E 468, “Presentation of Constant Amplitude Fatigue Test Results for Metallic...