1-20 of 51 Search Results for

circulation cleaning

Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A type 410 stainless steel circulating water pump shaft used in a fossil power steam generation plant failed after more than 7 years of service. Visual examination showed the fracture surface to be coated with a thick, spalling, rust-colored scale, along with evidence of pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... SCC environment for a long period of time after the condenser was drained and dried. The shell side of the condenser was chemically cleaned to remove the carbon steel rust and scale during the startup of the cogeneration plant. When the condenser hotwell was first filled and when the circulating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... UNS N06600 superalloy tubes were installed. The heat exchanger operates continuously except when the black liquor side is cleaned biweekly by circulating 6% nitric acid at 60 °C (140 °F) and a pH of 1.5 to 2 for several hours. The pH levels of the black liquor and steam condensate are maintained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... applications, contamination problems require a change in the method of lubrication. For example, where bath oiling is used and considerable trouble is encountered with dirt, it may be advisable to change to circulation oiling. The lubricant can then be cleaned by passing it through a full-flow filter. Where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the tubes, while water circulated through the tubes. Investigation (visual inspection, leak testing, history review, 100X micrographs etched in potassium dichromate, chemical analysis, and EDS and XRD analysis of internal tube deposits) supported the conclusion that the cause of the tube leaks was ammonia...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... suction from the cooling water pit in the turbine building, and, after circulating water through respective heat exchangers, the heat is rejected to the atmosphere. Pertinent Specifications The pumps operate at 30 hp, 1500 rev/min with a flow rate of 175 m 3 /h (6180 ft 3 /h). they are negative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by the circulation of water inside tubes, which are placed outside the large tubes of the boiler, forming with them a tubular structure. All types of gas which come from the fuel that is burnt in the furnace circulate in the outer parts of the tubes [ 1 ] and operate at medium and high pressure, resulting in high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified as to alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and it will be useful to consider first in detail the mechanism of magnetite formation. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is one of the oxides of iron—it is black and magnetic in nature. Boiler water will react with the clean surface of a steel tube to form a layer of magnetite, which serves subsequently to confer corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... tube was one of eight cooler units at a hydroelectric power station. The unit had operated for approximately 49,000 h. The cooling medium for the tubes is water from a river. Air flows over the finned exterior of the tubes, while water circulates through the tubes. Circumstances Leading to Failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Frequency and methods of cleaning fireside and waterside surfaces of steam generators Materials specified as to alloy requirements and dimensions Frequency and location of any previous failures Length of service of the failed component Any unusual operating history Such details can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... zirconium impellers were submitted to IMR Test Labs (a division of Ithaca Materials Research) for post-service materials analysis. Both impellers were utilized in chemical industry circulation pump applications in the Mid-East. Analysis of the aqueous acidic pumpage reveals 50 g/L HCl, 3 g/L MgCl 2 , 3 g/L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The general approach that has been taken to component decontamination is to use as gentle a procedure as possible to minimize damage to the physical evidence related to the failure cause. In many cases, scrubbing or ultrasonic cleaning of the component surfaces with detergent and water essentially eliminates...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or other products on the fracture surfaces that hides surface details of the fracture. However, fracture surfaces, generally speaking, should not be cleaned until after their appearance with corrosion or other contaminants present has been recorded. In some cases, the contaminating material may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to be conveyed when a report is prepared or when evidence is presented in court. In many cases, components have corrosion or other products on the fracture surfaces that hides surface details of the fracture. However, fracture surfaces, generally speaking, should not be cleaned until after their appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such as a stainless steel pick. Corrodent samples should be placed in clean, clearly marked containers. The corrosion deposits should be analyzed. One of the most common analysis techniques is energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This method, used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in Fig. 2 . Corrosion Given the aggressive chemical environment within the human body, corrosion processes can also take place on orthopedic implants and can contribute to failures. Although less common in orthopedic implants, cleaning and sterilization methods may also contribute to corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., radiant, natural circulation, non-reheat, pressurized furnace, outdoor, boiler El Paso type (RBE) Design pressure 101.7 barg Main steam flow TSH outlet (evaporating capability) 109.7 kg/s; 394,920 kg/h Steam temperature TSH outlet (from 50% MCR up to MCR) 525 °C Steam pressure TSH outlet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... service failures resulting from imperfections produced during manufacture. Secondary Manufacturing Techniques Secondary manufacturing techniques result in more service failures than do surface and subsurface imperfections produced during tubing manufacture. The methods used to draw, clean, heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... carriers. 2 , 5 The detailed mechanism of the formation of immunogens by metal-protein complexions in vivo is not well known, but there are two possible mechanisms (cell- and humoral-mediated response) to explain the immune response. The humoral mechanism is based on the production of freely circulating...