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chromium-iron-nickel alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the temperature supposedly did not exceed 1050 deg C. Structural observations indicated a special case of internal oxidation. The required conditions for this were apparently provided by the moist hydrogen atmosphere of the annealing furnace, in which the chromium was oxidized, while the oxides of iron and nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by electrical heating of the bridgewire. Evidence of severe corrosion was revealed on examination of the nickel-chromium-iron alloy bridgewire and the nickel-iron alloy pins. Metallic elements in the pin or bridgewire and substantial amounts of chlorine were detected from the x-ray spectra. Morphological...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...; the latter causes flake-like spalling. Measures to prevent SCC include stress reduction, use of austenitic steels or nickel alloys not susceptible to grain boundary attack, use of ferritic chromium steels, surface slag removal, control of temperature and chloride concentration, and cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concentration decreases with depth, due to diffusion limitations. Precipitates formed along the diffusion front. Fig. 7 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on nickel alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln. See also Fig. 8 . Region 1 is an area of chromium sulfide islands (dark phase) interspersed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and/or aluminum to form a protective layer of chromium or aluminum oxide (Cr 2 O 3 or Al 2 O 3 ) scale to resist oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. These oxide scales are slow growing. When an alloy is under sulfidation attack, sulfides of chromium, iron, and nickel are likely to form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is an area of chromium sulfide islands (dark phase) interspersed in a chromium-depleted region (bright phase). Region 2 has an angular phase (consisting mostly of nickel sulfide) in the chromium-depleted region (bright phase). The dark outer region contains cavities, corroded metal, and various debris...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... cracks by means of which the corrosion has penetrated more deeply leading to cracks in the metal. As a result of diffusion particularly of the alloying elements iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, various fringe-like enrichment zones have established themselves along the edges of the cracks...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environments, the cast structure of a nickel weld may be anodic to the wrought parent metals. The combination of their passive surface with their inherent resistance places nickel-chromium alloys such as Inconel alloy 600 and Hastelloy alloy C-276 in more noble positions in the traditional galvanic series...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A nickel alloy cylinder plated with chromium along its inner liner, installed in a commercial ice cream freezer, showed gray discoloration along its OD surface. The discolored parts exhibited significantly reduced cooling efficiency as compared with new cylinders. During...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., and Inco alloy C-276) were placed directly in the hot gas stream, containing HCl and Cl2, for in situ testing. Results of this investigation showed that nickel-chromium corrosion-resistant alloys, such as Inconel 600, Inconel 625, and Inco alloy C-276, performed well in this environment. Laboratory testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... environments, the cast structure of a nickel weld may be anodic to the wrought parent metals. The combination of their passive surface with their inherent resistance places nickel-chromium alloys such as Inconel alloy 600 and Hastelloy alloy C-276 in more noble positions in the traditional galvanic series...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... failure may have been washed away by escaping steam. X-ray fluorescence spectra of the dust from the tube surface, showed lead, silicon, aluminum, and calcium as the predominant contaminants, with lesser concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel, copper, and titanium. Corrosion Deposits The fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...–ironchromium alloy Dip tube ¼-in. thick tube, Incoloy 825, nickelironchromium alloy Draft tube ½-in. thick, Type 316 stainless steel Refractory lining of combustion chamber interior Wall: dense chromia-alumina brick Cone region: dense high chromia brick Castable refractory beneath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Metal Iron 52 40 1.0 Nickel 35 44 72.0 Chromium 9 11 20.0 Niobium 2 2 2.5 Manganese 2 2 3.0 Corrosion or Wear Deposits Results of analysis of the corrosion products present in some of the cracks are listed in Table 2 . Composition of corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...” grades has also helped minimize sensitization by limiting the carbon content so that a minimum of the chromium carbides could form. The introduction of the nickel-brazed process in ultradry hydrogen atmospheres with elevated brazing temperatures was a major step in producing brazements with corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... element analysis data and graph of a crack fracture surface. Base metal elements revealed that the impeller material was an AISI 4300 alloy steel. Element wt% at.% Silicon 0.27 0.53 Chromium 1.10 1.18 Manganese 0.88 0.89 Iron 96.40 96.12 Nickel 1.35 1.28...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... furnace rolls were received for analysis in Q4 1996. The rings had been taken from the rolls according to the sketch shown in Figure 1 . The rolls were reported to be MO-RE 1, a nickel-chromium-iron alloy with a long history and good record in table roll applications. The customer indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... deposits were adhering to the outer diameter of the sheath. A large metallic drip remained on the damaged end of the sheath and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis indicated that the drip was mainly nickel and molybdenum. Small amounts of iron and chromium were also identified in this specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was chromium rich, whereas the inner portion was rich in iron and nickel. Fig. 4 Back-scattered image, along with spot analysis, across metal/oxide scale region of a grate bar. Area Composition, % Fe Cr Ni S Cl Ca Al Si 1 1.85 95.37 0.68 0.42 0.18 0.18 0.48 0.85 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the material by changes in the grey level of the image. X-ray mappings and line profiles for carbon, chromium, manganese, iron and nickel were made across the interdendritic regions, over the oxide/matrix interface, at an operating voltage of 15kV. In this investigation, transverse cross section areas...