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chromium-iron alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by electrical heating of the bridgewire. Evidence of severe corrosion was revealed on examination of the nickel-chromium-iron alloy bridgewire and the nickel-iron alloy pins. Metallic elements in the pin or bridgewire and substantial amounts of chlorine were detected from the x-ray spectra. Morphological...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the temperature supposedly did not exceed 1050 deg C. Structural observations indicated a special case of internal oxidation. The required conditions for this were apparently provided by the moist hydrogen atmosphere of the annealing furnace, in which the chromium was oxidized, while the oxides of iron and nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract An impact breaker bar showed signs of rapid wear. The nominal composition of this chromium alloy cast iron was Fe-2.75C-0.75Mn-0.5Si-0.5Ni-19.5Cr-1.1Mo. The measured hardness of this bar was 450 to 500 HRB. The desired hardness for this material after air hardening is 600...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A high-chromium white cast iron shell liner installed in an ore crusher sustained impact damage in the course of operation. Visual-optical examination revealed horizontal cracks on the surface of the liner along with particles that had fractured off. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...; the latter causes flake-like spalling. Measures to prevent SCC include stress reduction, use of austenitic steels or nickel alloys not susceptible to grain boundary attack, use of ferritic chromium steels, surface slag removal, control of temperature and chloride concentration, and cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to fracture but also could have led to damage in the long term in the case of a sound casting. It is therefore advisable in the manufacture of new impellers to take care not only to avoid porosity but also to use alloy GGL Ni-Cu-Cr 15 6 3, which has a higher chromium content and is more resistant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... furnace rolls were received for analysis in Q4 1996. The rings had been taken from the rolls according to the sketch shown in Figure 1 . The rolls were reported to be MO-RE 1, a nickel-chromium-iron alloy with a long history and good record in table roll applications. The customer indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and/or aluminum to form a protective layer of chromium or aluminum oxide (Cr 2 O 3 or Al 2 O 3 ) scale to resist oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. These oxide scales are slow growing. When an alloy is under sulfidation attack, sulfides of chromium, iron, and nickel are likely to form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Similarly, in addition to iron oxides between the metal particles, particles of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) were identified by x-ray diffraction and the presence of silicon was seen. The most valuable microprobe data was, however, that of the distribution of chromium in the oxide in the 1977 and 1979 deposits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... approximately 50 to 250 μm deep. The sulfidized weakened structure of the alloy has led to cracking. Fig. 6 Formation of chromium sulfides (gray areas, such as marked by arrow) along the surface, caused by diffusion of sulfur species along the grain boundaries of IN-690 liner. As expected, sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... with precipitated carbides (dark gray area)and lamellar structure consisting of austenite and carbide. The oxide itself was rich in chromium and iron oxides, but other phases were also present, including a small amount of metallic phase in a few areas. Within the metal beneath the oxide scale were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the material by changes in the grey level of the image. X-ray mappings and line profiles for carbon, chromium, manganese, iron and nickel were made across the interdendritic regions, over the oxide/matrix interface, at an operating voltage of 15kV. In this investigation, transverse cross section areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Some Ferrous Metals , J. Met. , Vol 5 , 1953 , p 44 10.1007/BF03397446 51. Marandet B. , Effect of Cold Work on the Dissolution and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Unalloyed Carbon Steels , Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Iron Base Alloys , Staehle R.W...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium is cathodic to iron, but in the galvanic series (at least in seawater), cadmium is anodic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...–ironchromium alloy Dip tube ¼-in. thick tube, Incoloy 825, nickel–ironchromium alloy Draft tube ½-in. thick, Type 316 stainless steel Refractory lining of combustion chamber interior Wall: dense chromia-alumina brick Cone region: dense high chromia brick Castable refractory beneath...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the alloying element in question, but also having the same matrix element and a similar concentration of alloying element. For example, it may not be a good idea to use a nickel-base superalloy with 15% chromium as a calibration check for an iron-base stainless steel with 15% chromium. Another important...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Cavitation could have led to long-term damage even in a sound casting, although it did not appear to contribute to the fracture. Recommendations Casting practices should be implemented to avoid porosity, and an alloy austenitic cast iron (GGL NiCuCr 15 6 3) that has a higher chromium content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A nickel alloy cylinder plated with chromium along its inner liner, installed in a commercial ice cream freezer, showed gray discoloration along its OD surface. The discolored parts exhibited significantly reduced cooling efficiency as compared with new cylinders. During...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... cracks by means of which the corrosion has penetrated more deeply leading to cracks in the metal. As a result of diffusion particularly of the alloying elements iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, various fringe-like enrichment zones have established themselves along the edges of the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... failure may have been washed away by escaping steam. X-ray fluorescence spectra of the dust from the tube surface, showed lead, silicon, aluminum, and calcium as the predominant contaminants, with lesser concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel, copper, and titanium. Corrosion Deposits The fracture...