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chromium manganese steel (low alloy chromium steel, general)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of a low-carbon steel in which the zone heated during welding was delineated only slightly next to the seam, the other pipe was etched much darker, i.e., higher in carbon, and the heated zone appeared to stand out darkly against the basic material. The overlapping weld was defect-free and dense...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The repeated occurrence of random cracks in the fillet radius portion of low-alloy steel (38KhA) end frame forgings following heat treatment was investigated. Microstructural analyses were carried out on both the failed part and disks of the rolled bar from which the part was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract One percent Cr-Mo low alloy constructional steel is widely used for high tensile applications, e.g., for manufacture of high tensile fasteners, heat treated shafts and axles, for automobile applications such as track pins for high duty tracked vehicles etc. The steel is fairly through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the failures stemmed from forging laps in the jaw that broaching failed to remove. open end wrench fracture forging laps chromium steel fracture scanning electron microscopy surface morphology chromium manganese steel (low alloy chromium steel, general) Introduction A maintenance worker...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... failed by torsional fatigue starting at subsurface crack initiation sites. The forging contained regions of crack like flaws associated with particles rich in chromium, manganese, and iron. Fracture features indicated that the fatigue cracks propagated under a relatively low stress. Forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Cracking was discovered in an in-service, second-stage turbine impeller during a downtime inspection. The fabricated 4300 series low-alloy steel impeller was used in a compressor in an industrial petrochemical plant. It was also reported that a process upset had allowed a 10% NaOH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... paper mill recovery boilers, stainless steel superheater banks are often installed because of their superior fireside corrosion resistance, excellent high-temperature strength, and relatively good weldability with chromium/molybdenum low-alloy steel tubing in the system. This particular tertiary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Iron 11 72 Nickel 40 2 Chromium 2 11 Niobium 1 4 Manganese 1 5 Sulfur 45 4 Discussion Visual examination revealed general deterioration of the weld beads. Corrosion of this form indicates a general lack of corrosion resistance of the metal to its environment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (>25 to 30% Cr) is required for good resistance to hot corrosion. Nickel alloys with both chromium and aluminum show improved resistance to hot corrosion. Type 2, low-temperature hot corrosion, occurs in the temperature range of 650 to 750 °C (1200 to 1380 °F), where SO 3 is relatively high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the grain boundary surface. It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of chromium-molybdenum steels ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 3 SEM image of fracture surface of nickel-base alloy (Inconel 751, annealed and aged) after stress rupture (730 °C, or 1350 °F; 380 MPa, or 55 ksi; 125 h). (a) Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photographically documented ( Fig. 5 ). The surfaces exhibited a dendritic structure, which indicated that the defects were formed during the original impeller casting process. Fig. 5 shows a low-magnification view of the shrinkage void surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...-metal cracks in Fig. 1(b) . The crack has the branched, transgranular appearance typical of Cl-SCC in stainless steel. Metallography also indicated that prior cracks had not been completely removed before welding. Discussion It appears the original casting suffered SCC in a low-oxygen area high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... annealing in gases producing scale, since there because of the hindrance by scale decarburisation at such low temperatures proceeds not at all or very slowly — as already mentioned above. An exception is made by steels with alloying elements, which cut off the γ-area; thus the α- and (α + γ)-area extend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It can also appear in the stress-relief cracking of chromium-molybdenum steels ( Ref 5 ). Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy image of fracture surface of nickel-base alloy (Inconel 751, annealed and aged) after stress rupture (730 °C, or 1350 °F; 380 MPa, or 55 ksi; 125 h). (a) Low-magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-type shock-resistant steel, although sometimes a less expensive material can be substituted for the material specified. For example, the same hardness can be achieved in a drastically quenched plain carbon steel, tempered at a low temperature, as in a higher-carbon alloy steel that was tempered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was formed. This zone also contained sufficient chromium, silicon, and molybdenum from the filler metal, and carbon from the base metal, to approximate a highly hardenable low alloy steel upon fast solidification and cooling. The base metal had a D I of 10.2 mm (0.4 in.), and the average weld D I...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A high-pressure steam pipe specified to be P22 low-alloy steel failed after 25 years of service. Located at the end of the steam line, the pipe reportedly received no steam flow during normal service. Visual examination of the failed pipe section revealed a window fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... taken from the inner wall of the pipe near the through-wall hole were analyzed by EDS. Areas surrounding the hole showed a high-chloride concentration. Sulfur was also found at low levels. Discussion The corrosion observed did not fit the requirements for under-deposit corrosion. The silt covered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules of ASTM 60-45-10 ductile iron. Original magnification: 350×. (c) Parabolic shear dimples in cast Ti-6Al...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand molds...