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chloride contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was transgranular, chloride, stress-corrosion cracking. Replacement decisions were based on the presence of SCC attack or heavy corrosion deposits indicative of extended exposure time to chloride-contaminated water. The existing uncracked pipe, about 75 percent of the piping in the system, was retained despite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the inner liner initiated on the outer surface of the liner and propagated inward, whereas cracks in the bellows originated on the inner surface and propagated outward. Stress-corrosion cracking of the assembly was caused by chloride contaminants trapped inside the bellows following hydrostatic testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... by chloride contamination in conjunction with ambient moisture and residual stresses created when forming during original manufacture. Several areas of the cracked shields some distance away from the welds were subjected to bend tests. The material unexpectedly fractured with little or no deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for the glass headers to eliminate the chloride contamination and a vacuum drying procedure was instituted for the pyrotechnic. Actuators Chlorine Pyrotechnics Tophet C (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion Pyrotechnically driven devices are used in a number of ordnance applications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the tube-side fluid was contaminated liquid methylene chloride. More than 100 tubes exhibiting severe outer surface pitting and cracklike indications near each tube sheet were revealed during eddy current inspection. It was observed that the indications correlated with rust-stained, pitted, and cracked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... possibly related to chloride or sulphate ion steam contaminants. Subsequent sectioning and conventional metallography confirmed both the validity of the conclusions and the replication techniques. Corrosion products Field metallography Intergranular corrosion Turbine discs 2.5Ni-Cr-Mo-V Stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-induced SCC of austenitic stainless steel. Fig. 1 Section through type 316 stainless steel tubing that failed by SCC because of exposure to chloride-contaminated steam condensate. Micrograph shows a small transgranular crack that originated at a corrosion pit on the inside surface of the tubing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... These materials, in addition to having a superior resistance to chloride-induced SCC, exhibit low thermal strains as compared to austenitic stainless steels. We recommended identifying and eliminating the service-related factors which contributed to carry-over and subsequent chloride contamination. Selected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the chlorides be eliminated and that the remaining blades be inspected at regular maintenance intervals for evidence of cracking. The turbine is used to generate electricity at a major power plant. Chloride contamination of the steam reportedly occurred a few months prior to the inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... not successful. Chloride contamination of the Rocky Point Viaduct appears to be responsible for its failure. The use of coatings on the rebar after the repair in 1969 did not decrease the corrosion susceptibility of the rebar. The use of poor patch concrete in 1969 accelerated the failure of the Rocky...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... findings, it was determined that the cracks and associated leak were the result of chloride stress-corrosion cracking. spiral heat exchanger corrosion chloride contamination stainless steel transgranular cracks chemical analysis residual stress 316L (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... intergranular cracking in both 304 and 304L stainless steel. Also work by Bednar ( 13 ) suggests that alloys of 301 and 305 stainless steel will crack in chloride environments at temperatures between 95 to 154°C, it is, therefore, advisable to reduce or eliminate chloride contamination in contact with stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A problem with an airborne corrodent occurred in one case in which packing boxes became contaminated with calcium chloride from road-deicing and dust-control operations. The corrodent washed over stainless steel condenser tubes, causing ferric chloride pitting, which perforated the tubes before they were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a given environment. Stress-corrosion cracks ordinarily undergo extensive branching and proceed in a general direction perpendicular to the stresses contributing to their initiation and propagation. Figure 1(a) shows transgranular, branched chloride SCC in a specimen of type 304 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. Original magnification: 2.75×. (b) Higher-magnification view of a pit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of a dished end The common causative factors for SCC of the stainless steel components were determined to be (1) rusting of the iron contaminants, (2) the presence of chloride in the coastal environment, and (3) stresses arising from fabrication or fit-up. The work site where these SCC failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking Alloy Environment Carbon steel Hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonate/bicarbonate solutions High-strength steels Aqueous electrolytes, particularly when containing H 2 S Austenitic stainless steels Hot, concentrated chloride solutions; chloride-contaminated steam; hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... as primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides while the green deposit was revealed to be copper chloride. The combination of sulfide and chloride attack on the tubes was concluded to have resulted in the failure. Injection of ferrous sulfate upstream of the condenser which could aid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... revealed that the sugar liquor contained about two per cent. of sodium chloride. A chemical analysis of the skirt material showed this to be a titanium-stabilised 19/10 Cr.Ni. austenitic stainless steel and it is an established fact that contamination by chlorides can lead to the initiation of stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... years to approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also conducted, along with simulation tests to assess the role of alkali chlorides...