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chip formation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... indicated a heavily deformed surface layer with chip formation at the wear surface. The chemical composition of the liner was found to be Fe-2.74C-0.75Mn-0.55Si-0.51Ni-19.4Cr-1.15M. This alloy is highly resistant to abrasive wear, yet at the same time, prone to chipping because little plastic displacement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... can fracture explosively, expelling a chip either as the result of a tensile wave reflected back from the free surface of the hammer head or by a shock wave caused by a subsequent impact. The mechanism of formation of white bands has been described by investigators as zones of intense adiabatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Shear Bands in Controlled Penetration Impact , Int. J. Impact Eng. , Vol. 11 ( No. 3 ), 1991 , p 305 – 321 19. Xie J.Q. , Bayoumi A.E. , and Zbib H.M. , Analytical and Experimental Study of Shear Localization in Chip Formation in Orthogonal Machining , J. Mater. Eng. Perform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... microstructure. Type 416 is also alloyed to promote machinability. This feature is accomplished by additions of both manganese (Mn) and sulfur (S), which combine to form numerous manganese sulfide (MnS) stringers throughout the material matrix. These stringers serve to promote chip formation during machining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several surface-mount chip resistor assemblies failed during monthly thermal shock testing and in the field. The resistor exhibited a failure mode characterized by a rise in resistance out of tolerance for the system. Representative samples from each step in the manufacturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... is based upon formation of tight oxide layers are not stable. Heat distributing units Heating coils Overheating 80Ni-20Cr High-temperature corrosion and oxidation A coil made of the nickel-chromium alloy NiCr 80 20 (Material No. 2.4869) with approx. 80 % Ni and 20% Cr had burnt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... adjacent broken teeth and large chip indicated that the main cracks had propagated progressively from the driven convex side of the teeth downward toward the concave side ( Fig. 2 ). The primary crack initiation sites appeared to be below the gear surface on both teeth. By matching the fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... into two components, a cutting component and a deformation component, based on the angle of impact of the particles. The component of the particle velocity parallel to the surface produces the cutting component of erosion. Erosion by cutting can be considered similar to chip formation in machining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... what deficiencies (if any) resulfurized steels may pose with respect to mechanical properties and design considerations. In particular, what failure potential may be present in these steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Manganese is added to all steels in order to prevent the formation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Alloys by Spot Test , STP 550, ASTM , 1974 Bulk Composition Verification Microchemical Analysis in Failure Analysis Economy Methods Referee Methods Alternatives to Economy and Referee Methods Hydrogen Embrittlement Procuring a Chemical Analysis Format of a Bulk Metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the corrosion products associated with the fissure were iron and nickel sulfides. Most Probable Cause Remedial Action How Failure Could Have Been Prevented The digester is used to cook wood chips to break down lignin and release fibers, which are natural components of wood. The batch process begins...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces of two materials that experienced the same high-stress abrasion. (a) At 60 HRC, the material exhibited no white-etching layers, while (b) at 20 HRC points, softer, significant gouging and white-etching layer formation is observed. Fig. 15 A scanning electron micrograph of the details...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and are forced across the surface of the wear material. Depending on the properties of the abrasive and wear materials, one of several wear mechanisms ( Fig. 4 ) may occur ( Ref 7 , 10 ): Plowing occurs when material is displaced to the side, away from the wear particles, resulting in the formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the surface produces the cutting component of erosion. Erosion by cutting is similar to chip formation in machining, in that pieces of material are removed by the impact of a sharp-edged particle. This component dominates the erosion rate at low impact angles. A model for the cutting component was introduced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... with the bridge; steel rocker assemblies were badly corroded. May 1968 - the steel rocker assemblies were badly rusted; the long beams were cracking and needed chipping and patching. January 1969 - the concrete was spalling along the outside of the west facing beam between bent No. 1 and bent No.2; concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of microelectronic components complex is that there are considerable thermal transient and cyclic effects that must be analyzed, and many of the critical materials have nonlinear properties. There are micro-heat-generation sources inside chip packages and global printed circuit board cooling considerations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... There are micro-heat-generation sources inside chip packages and global printed circuit board cooling considerations that interact. These temperature conditions cause macrothermal distortions of the entire printed circuit boards (PCBs) as well as microdistortions at the solder joints that connect the chips...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... In terms of location, surface cracks are most harmful, partly because they are exposed to environmental effects. This exposure amplifies the adverse influence of cracks on the structure, particularly in low-toughness materials. The formation of weld cracks is discussed in more detail in the section...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... value of this critical factor is influenced by gear metal, gear design, character of lubricant, and method of lubricant application. Lubrication is accomplished on gear teeth by the formation of two types of oil films: (1) the reaction film, also known as the boundary lubricant, is produced...